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REFERENCES  ON  THE  AMERICAN  INDIAN
USE  OF  FIRE  IN  ECOSYSTEMS

Gerald W. Williams, Ph.D., Historical Analyst
USDA Forest Service
Washington, D.C.
2001
(pdf file of the Williams Bibliography, 1.03 MB)

(With contributions by William Reed, Boise NF, Sandra Morris, Region 1, and Henry T. Lewis)

May 18, 2001

Evidence for the purposeful use of fire by American Indians (also termed Native Americans, Indigenous People, and First Nations/People) in many ecosystems has been easy to document but difficult to substantiate. Commonly, many people, even researchers and ecologists, discount the fact that the American Indians greatly changed the ecosystems for their use and survival. However, as Daniel Botkin pointed out, these impressions of a "benign people treading lightly on the land" is wrong:

It often seems that the common impression about the American West is that, before the arrival of people of European descent, Native Americans had essentially no effect on the land, the wildlife, or the ecosystems, except that they harvested trivial amounts that did not affect the "natural" abundances of plants and animals. But Native Americans had three powerful technologies: fire, the ability to work wood into useful objects, and the bow and arrow. To claim that people with these technologies did not or could not create major changes in natural ecosystems can be taken as Western civilization's ignorance, chauvinism, and old prejudice against primitivism--the noble but dumb savage. There is ample evidence that Native Americans greatly changed the character of the landscape with fire, and that they had major effects on the abundances of some wildlife species through their hunting (Botkin 1990: 169).

Fire scientists often attribute old fire scars found in tree rings to natural causes, such as lightning rather than anthropogenic caused. However, there is a growing literature (see below) that many of the so?called natural fires were intentionally caused.

Arrival of the Europeans

By the time that European explorers, fur traders, and settlers arrived in many parts of North America, a number of native populations were on the verge of collapse because of new diseases (smallpox) introduced accidently and wide-spread epidemics (flu) against which the Indians had no immunity, In addition, warfare (with old enemies and new immigrants), new technologies (horse, iron, and firearms), change of economy (to fur trading and sheep grazing), different food sources (farming and federal handouts), and treaties (restricting or removing Indians from traditional lands) all had many consequences (some positive, many negative) on native cultures and populations

By the 1800s, many native languages and tribes were becoming extinct and knowledge of the "old" ways was dying. Only a handful of ethnographers and anthropologists (many employed by the Smithsonian Institution and/or the American Bureau of Ethnology) felt the need to record the Indian languages and lifestyles before the last of many tribes disappeared. Even fewer of these researchers asked questions about the native peoples deliberately changing ecosystems. Yet there is a growing body of literature (ethnobotany) about American Indians using native plants for food, medicine, and ceremonial uses, as well as plants/shrubs/trees for food, clothing, shelter, and tools. In addition, there is extensive documentation of tribes changing water flow (canals), practicing farming, grazing (horses, sheep, and cattle since the 1600s), using vegetation, wood, and bone for decorative arts, minerals for many uses, and building structures of wood, rock, and ice. These and other purposeful uses of and changes to "natural" ecosystems remain, for the most part, to be well documented.

Settlers and the Rich Prairies

Early explorers and fur trappers often observed huge burned over or cleared areas with many dead trees "littering" the landscape, without knowledge of whether the fires were natural or Indian caused. Written accounts by early settlers remain incomplete, although many noted that there was evidence of burned or scorched trees and open prairies or savannas with tall grasses in every river basin. The abundance of rich prairie land ("ready for the plow" without having to clear the land) was one of the primary reasons for settlers to head west to the Oregon Territory and California, and eventually to "back?fill" the Great Plains. There are many other accounts of travelers in forest areas commenting on the ability to see trough/around the trees for long distances-obviously lacking in shrubs, brush, and small trees.

Through the turn of the 20th century, settlers often used fire to clear the land of brush and trees in order to make new farm land for crops and new pastures for grazing animals--the North American variation of slash and burn technology?-while others deliberately burned to reduce the threat of major fires--the so-called "light burning" technique. Since the uplands were still in government ownership (public domain), many settlers adjacent to the hills often either deliberately set fires and/or allowed fires to "run free." Also, sheep and cattle owners, as well as shepherds and cowboys, often set the alpine meadows and prairies on fire at the end of the grazing season to burn the dried grasses, reduce brush, and kill young trees, as well as encourage the growth of new grasses for the following summer and fall grazing season.

Role of Fire by Indians

Generally, the American Indians burned parts of the ecosystems in which they lived to promote a diversity of habitats, especially increasing the "edge effect," which gave the Indians greater security and stability to their lives. Their use of fire was different from white settlers who burned to create greater uniformity in ecosystems. In general, during the presettlement period, Indian caused fires were often interpreted as either purposeful (including fires set for amusement) or accidental (campfires left or escaped smoke signaling).

Most primary or secondary accounts relate to the purposeful burning to establish or keep "mosaics, resource diversity, environmental stability, predictability, and the maintenance of ecotones (Lewis 1985: 77)." These purposeful fires by almost every American Indian tribe differ from natural fires by the seasonality of burning, frequency of burning certain areas, and the intensity of the fire. For those Indian tribes that used fire in ecosystems tended to burn in the late spring just before new growth appears, while in areas that are drier fires tended to be set during the late summer or early fall since the main growth of plants and grasses occurs in the winter. Indians burned selected areas yearly, every other year, or intervals as long as five years. Steve Pyne put much of the Indian use of fire into perspective as he reported that:

the modification of the American continent by fire at the hands of Asian immigrants [now called American Indians, Native Americans, or First Nations/People] was the result of repeated, controlled, surface burns on a cycle of one to three years, broken by occasional holocausts from escape fires and periodic conflagrations during times of drought. Even under ideal circumstances, accidents occurred: signal fires escaped and campfires spread, with the result that valuable range was untimely scorched, buffalo driven away, and villages threatened. Burned corpses on the prairie were far from rare. So extensive were the cumulative effects of these modifications that it may be said that the general consequence of the Indian occupation of the New World was to replace forested land with grassland or savannah, or, where the forest persisted, to open it up and free it from underbrush. Most of the impenetrable woods encountered by explorers were in bogs or swamps from which fire was excluded; naturally drained landscape was nearly everywhere burned. Conversely, almost wherever the European went, forests followed. The Great American Forest may be more a product of settlement than a victim of it (Pyne 1982: 79-80).

Documented Reasons or Purposes for Indian Burning

Keeping large areas of forest and mountains free of undergrowth and small trees was just one of many reasons for using fire in ecosystems. What follows is a summary of documented reasons or purposes for changing ecosystems through intentional burning by American Indians. This activity has greatly modified landscapes across the continent in many subtle ways that have often been interpreted as "natural" by the early explorers, trappers, and settlers. Even many research scientists who study presettlement forest and savannah fire evidence tend to attribute most prehistoric fires as being caused by lightning (natural) rather than by humans. This problem arises because there was no systematic record keeping of these fire events. Thus the interaction of people and ecosystems is down played or ignored, which often leads to the conclusion that people are a problem in "natural" ecosystems rather than the primary force in their development.

Henry T. Lewis, who has authored more books and articles on this subject than anyone else, concluded that there were at least 70 different reasons for the Indians firing the vegetation (Lewis 1973). Other writers have listed fewer number of reasons, using different categories (Kay 1994; Russell 1983). In summary, there are eleven major reasons for American Indian ecosystem burning, which are derived from well over 300 studies:

  • Hunting - The burning of large areas was useful to divert big game (deer, elk, bison) into small unburned areas for easier hunting and provide open prairies/meadows (rather than brush and tall trees) where animals (including ducks and geese) like to dine on fresh, new grass sprouts. Fire was also used to drive game into impoundments, narrow chutes, into rivers or lakes, or over cliffs where the animals could be killed easily. Some tribes used a surround fire to drive rabbits into small areas. The Seminoles even practiced hunting alligators with fire. Torches were used to spot deer and attract or see fish at night. Smoke used to drive/dislodge raccoons and bears from hiding.
  • Crop management - Burning was used to harvest crops, especially tarweed, yucca, greens, and grass seed collection. In addition, fire was used to prevent abandoned fields from growing over and to clear areas for planting corn and tobacco. One report of fire being used to bring rain (overcome drought). Clearing ground of grass and brush to facilitate the gathering of acorns. Fire used to roast mescal and obtain salt from grasses.
  • Improve growth and yields - Fire was often used to improve grass for big game grazing (deer, elk, antelope, bison), horse pasturage, camas reproduction, seed plants, berry plants (especially raspberries, strawberries, and huckleberries), and tobacco.
  • Fireproof areas - Some indications that fire was used to protect certain medicine plants by clearing an area around the plants, as well as to fireproof areas, especially around settlements, from destructive wildfires. Fire was also used to keep prairies open from encroaching shrubs and trees.
  • Insect collection - Some tribes used a "fire surround" to collect & roast crickets, grasshoppers, pandora moths in pine forests, and collect honey from bees.
  • Pest management - Burning was sometimes used to reduce insects (black flies & mosquitos) and rodents, as well as kill mistletoe that invaded mesquite and oak trees and kill the tree moss favored by deer (thus forcing them to the valleys where hunting was easier). Some tribes also used fire to kill poisonous snakes.
  • Warfare & signaling - Use of fire to deprive the enemy of hiding places in tall grasses and underbrush in the woods for defense, as well as using fire for offensive reasons or to escape from their enemies. Smoke signals used to alert tribes about possible enemies or in gathering forces to combat enemies. Large fires also set to signal a gathering of tribes. During the Lewis & Clark expedition, a tree was set on fire by Indians in order to "bring fair weather" for their journey.
  • Economic extortion - Some tribes also used fire for a "scorched-earth" policy to deprive settlers and fur traders from easy access to big game and thus benefitting from being "middlemen" in supplying pemmican and jerky.
  • Clearing areas for travel - Fires were sometimes started to clear trails for travel through areas that were overgrown with grass or brush. Burned areas helped with providing better visibility through forests and brush lands for hunting and warfare purposes.
  • Felling trees - Fire was reportedly used to fell trees by boring two intersecting holes into the trunk, then drop burning charcoal in one hole, allowing the smoke to exit from the other. This method was also used by early settlers. Another way to kill trees was to surround the base with fire, allowing the bark and/or the trunk to burn causing the tree to die (much like girdling) and eventually topple over. Fire also used to kill trees so that the wood could later be used for dry kindling (willows) and firewood (aspen).
  • Clearing riparian areas - Fire was commonly used to clear brush from riparian areas and marshes for new grasses and tree sprouts (to benefit beaver, muskrats, moose, and waterfowl).

The following references are part of a growing literature of the intentional use of fire by American Indians in English speaking portions of North America. Thus, the compiler has not listed references from Mexico, Central America, South America, or other countries (e.g. Australia), although they will certainly prove instructive. Henry Lewis has written extensively about the use of fire by the Aboriginal people of Australia. Steve Pyne, in his recent book World of Fire: The Culture of Fire on Earth (1995) notes that use of fire by native peoples to change ecosystems or portions thereof is almost universal.

In addition, Henry T. Lewis, retired professor from the University of Alberta, has put together as 16mm film (33 minutes) on Indian (First Nation people) burning the boreal forests and grasslands in Northern Alberta, Canada. The film, "The Fires of Spring," has been transferred to video tape and is available through Dr. Lewis and/or the University of Alberta. The film shows interviews of older tribal members as well as current activities in burning ecosystems by First Nations people of Northern Alberta.

REFERENCES

Abbot, Henry Larcom
1857 "Report...Upon Explorations for a Railroad Route, from the Sacramento Valley to the Columbia River, Made by Lieut. R. [Robert] S. [Stockton] Williamson...Assisted by Lieut. Henry l. Abbot...1855." Pp. 1-134 Part I - General Report in Vol. 6. Reports of Explorations and Surveys to Ascertain the Most Practicable and Economical Route for a Railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean.... 33rd Congress, 2nd Session, Senate Executive Document 78. Washington, DC: U.S.G.P.O. Reprinted as Appendix B (Pp. 139-238) in Bert and Margie Webber's Railroading in Southern Oregon and the Founding of Medford. Fairfield, WA: Ye Galleon Press. 
1985. Mentions Shasta tribe Indian fires on p. 60 north of Ft. Reading (Redding) along the Pit (Pitt) River in northern CA and by unspecified Indian people on p. 73 along the upper Deschutes River of central Oregon.

Abrams, M.D.
1992 "Fire and the Development of Oak Forests." BioScience, Vol, 42, #5: 346-353.

Agee, James K.
1990 "The Historical Role of Fire in Pacific Northwest Forests." Pp. 25-38 in John D. Walstad, Steven R. Radsevich, and David V. Sandberg (eds.) Natural and Prescribed Fire in Pacific Northwest Forests. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press. Brief mention of Indian fires.
1993 Fire Ecology of Pacific Northwest Forests. Covelo, CA: Island Press. 493 pages. Numerous mentions of Indian use of fire on pages 54-58, 106-2207 (western hemlock forests), 354-357 & 361 (oak forests), and 372-374 (juniper forests in eastern Oregon).
1994 "Fire and Weather Disturbances in Terrestrial Ecosystems of the Eastern Cascades [of Oregon]." GTR-PNW-320. Portland, OR: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. Several mentions of Indian use of fire.
1996 "Fire in Restoration of Oregon White Oak Woodlands." Pp. 72-73 in Colin C. Hardy and Stephen F. Arno (eds.) The Role of Fire in Forest Restoration: A General Session at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Ecological Restoration, Seattle, WA, September 14-16, 1995. GTR-INT-341. Ogden, UT: USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station.

Aikens, C. Melvin (ed.)
1975 Archaeological Studies in the Willamette Valley, Oregon. University of Oregon Anthropological Papers No. 8. Eugene, OR: University of Oregon. Brief mention of Indian fires by citing David Douglas in the 1820s (see the John Davies 1980 citation below).

Anderson, Kling L.
1965 "Fire Ecology-Some Kansas Prairie Fobs." Pp. 1152-159 in Proceedings: Annual Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference; March 18-19, 1965. No. 4. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station. Mentions Indian use of fire.

Anderson, M. Kat
1993a Indian Fire-Based Management in the Sequoia-Mixed Conifer Forests of the Central and Southern Sierra Nevada. Final contract report submitted to Yosemite Research Center, Yosemite National Park, CA. Cooperative Agreement Order No. 8027-2-002. 426 pages.
1993b "The Experimental Approach to Assessment of the Potential Ecological Effects of Horticultural Practices by Indigenous Peoples on California Wildlands." Ph.D. dissertation. Berkeley, CA: University of California, Berkeley, Department of Forestry and Resources Management.
1994 "Prehistoric Anthropogenic Wildland Burning by Hunter-Gatherer Societies in the Temperate Regions: A Net Source, Sink, or Neutral to the Global Carbon Budget-" Chemosphere, Vol. 19, #5: 913-934.

Anderson, M. Kat; Michael G. Barbour; and Valerie Whitworth
1997 "A World of Balance and Plenty: Land, Plants, Animals, and Humans in a Pre-European California." California History, Vol. 76 (Summer and Fall): 12-47.

Anderson, M. Kat and Michael J. Moratto
1996 "Native American Land-Use Practices and Ecological Impacts." Pp. 187-206 in Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project, Final Report to Congress, Vol. II, Assessments and Scientific Basis for Management Options. Wildland Resources Center Report No. 37. Davis, CA: University of California, Centers for Water and Wildland Resources. Several mentions and citations to other studies.

Applegate, Jesse
1930 "Recollections of My Boyhood." Pp. 85-218 in Maude A. Rucker (ed.) The Oregon Trail. New York, NY: Walter Neale. Mentions burning for tarweed seed gathering in western Oregon by Kalapuya Tribe (Yoncalla Band).

Arno, Stephen F.
1980 "Forest Fire History in the Northern Rockies." Journal of Forestry, Vol. 78, #8 (Aug): 460-465. Several mentions on pages 462 and 465. 1985 "Ecological Effects and Management Implications of Indian Fires." Pp. 81-86 in James E.

Lotan, et al. (technical coordinators) 
Proceedings--Symposium and Workshop on Wilderness Fire: Missoula, Montana, November 15-18, 1983. GTR-INT-182. Ogden, UT: USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.

Arthur, George W.
1975a An Introduction to the Ecology of Early Historic Communal Bison Hunting Among the Northern Plains Indians. Archaeological Survey of Canada Paper No. 37, Ottawa, Ontario:

National Museum of Man.
1975b "An Introduction to the Ecology of Early Historic Bison Hunting Among the Northen Plains Indians." Ph.D. dissertation. Calgary, Alberta: University of Calgary.

Aschmann, Homer
1959 "The Evolution of a Wild Landscape and Its Persistence in Southern California." Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 49, #3 Part 2 (Sept): 34-56. Plus comment by Robert W. Richardson on page 57 re: Indian use of fire to promote growth of grasses and herbs.
1977 "Aboriginal Use of Fire." Pp. 132-141 in Environmental Consequences of Fire and Fuel Management in Mediterranean Ecosystems: Proceedings of the Symposium. GTR-WO-03. Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service.

Atzet, Thomas and D.L. Wheeler
1982 "Historical and Ecological Perspectives on Fire Activity in the Klamath Geological Province of the Rogue River and Siskiyou National Forests." Publication R-6-Range-10. Portland, OR: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region.

Babbitt, Bruce
1997 "A Coordinated Campaign: Fight Fire With Fire by Treating Fuel, Through Thinning and Prescribed Burns, We can Restore Our Wildlands to Their Former Health and Character." Remarks of U.S. Secretary of the Interior Bruce Babbitt at Boise State University, Idaho, February 11, 1997.

Bahre, Conrad Joseph
1985 "Wildfire in Southeastern Arizona Between 1859 and 1890." Desert Plants, Vol. 7, #4: 190-194.
1991 A Legacy of Change: Historic Human Impact on Vegetation of the Arizona Borderlands. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press. See especially Chapter 6 "Fire."

Baisan, Christopher H.
1990 "Fire History of the Rincon Mountain Wilderness, Saguaro National Monument." Technical Report 29. Tucson, AZ: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit. Notes Apache use of fire.

Baisan, Christopher H. and Thomas W. Swetnam
1990 "Fire History on a Desert Mountain Range: Rincon Mountain Wilderness, Arizona, U.S.A." Canadian Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 20: 1559-1569. Note Apache use of fire.

Baisan, Christopher H. and Thomas W. Swetnam
1995 "Management Implications of Historical Fire Occurrence Patterns in Remote Mountains of Southwestern New Mexico and Northern Sonora." Pp. 153-156 in J.K. Brown, et al. (eds.) Proceedings: Symposium on Fire in Wilderness and Park Management. GTR-INT-320. Ogden, UT: USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. Note Apache use of fire.

Barrett, Stephen W.
1980 "Indians and Fire." Western Wildlands, Vol. 6, #3 (Spring): 17-21. Mentions that the Flathead, Salish, Kootenai, Coeur d'Alene, and Blackfeet Tribes burned ecosystems.
1981a "Indian Fires in the Pre-Settlement Forests of Western Montana." Pp. 35-41 in

Marvin A. Stokes and John H. Dieterich (technical coordinators) Proceedings of the Fire History Workshop, October 20-24, 1980, Tucson, Arizona. GTR-RM-81. Fort Collins, CO: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. Noted that the Pend d'Oreille, Salish, Kootenai, Coeur d'Alene, and Flathead tribes used fire in ecosystems.
1981b "Relationship of Indian-Caused Fires to the Ecology of Western Montana." MS thesis. Missoula, MT: University of Montana. 198 pages.

Barrett, Stephen W. and Stephen F. Arno
1982 "Indian Fires as an Ecological Influence in the Northern Rockies." Journal of Forestry, Vol. 80, #10 (Oct): 647-651.

Bean, Lowell John
1972 Mukat's People: The Cahuilla Indians of Southern California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Notes grass burning by the Cahuilla Tribe to kill game animals (Pp. 34, 59, and 65, as well as enrich the soil and destroy grasshoppers and locusts (p. 34).

Bean, Lowell John (ed.) 
1973 Patterns of Indian Burning in California: Ecology and Ethnohistory. Ballena Anthropological Papers Vol. 1. Ramona, CA: Ballena Press. Includes the classic Henry T. Lewis monograph.

Bean, Lowell John and Harry W. Lawton
1973 "Some Explanations for the Rise of Cultural Complexity in Native California with Comments on Proto-Agriculture and Agriculture." Pp. V-XLVII in Lowell John Bean (ed.) Patterns of Indian Burning in California: Ecology and Ethnohistory. Ballena Anthropological Papers Vol. 1. Ramona, CA: Ballena Press. Introductory essay on southern CA Indian fires to the classic Henry T. Lewis monograph.

Bean, Lowell John and K.S. Saubel
1972 Temalpakh: Cahuilla Indian Knowledge and Usage of Plants. Banning, CA: Malki Museum Press.

Beckham, Stephen Dow
1971 Requiem for a People: The Rogue Indians and the Frontiersmen. Volume 108 on the Civilization of the American Indian Series. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. Cites the 1841 Wilkes party journey on page 37 regarding the Rogue River Indian tribe burning the hills.
1977 The Indians of Western Oregon: This Land was Theirs. Coos Bay, OR: Arago Books. Notes the Jesse Applegate story (see above) of burning tarweed in the fall by the Kalapuya Tribe.
1986 Land of the Umpqua: A History of Douglas County, Oregon. Roseburg, OR: Douglas County Commissioners. Notes the U.S. Exploring Expedition in 1841 (Wilkes party) mention of field burning in the Umpqua Valley (Umpqua Tribe) on page 59, Umpqua Valley settlers opposed to Indian burning on page 93, and the USDA Forest Service opposed on page 172. 
1995 "An Interior Empire: Historical Overview of the Columbia Basin." Report to the Eastside Ecosystem Management Project. Walla Walla, WA: Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project (a federal multi-agency project).

Beckham, Stephen Dow, Kathryn Anne Toepel, and Rick Minor
1982 Cultural Resources Overview of the Siuslaw National Forest, Western Oregon. Vol. 1. Report No. 7 by Heritage Research Associates. Corvallis, OR: USDA Forest Service, Siuslaw National Forest. Notes that the Tualatin Band of Kalapuya Indians burned to collect tarweed (page 172), then cites Towle (1979) and Zenk (1976) on pages 128-129.

Biswell, Harold Hubert
1967 "Forest Fire in Perspective." Proceedings: Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference: November 9-10, 1967. California Number: 42-63. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station. Notes fire use by Indians and settlers.
1989 Prescribed Burning in California Wildlands Vegetation Management. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. See especially Chapter 2 "Fires Set by Lightning and by Indians" (Pp. 38-60).

Blackburn, Thomas C. and Kat Anderson (eds.)
1993 Before the Wilderness: Environmental Management by Native Californians. Menlo Park, CA: Ballena Press. Several chapters on Indian use of fire, one by Henry T. Lewis as well as his final "In Retrospect."

Boag, Peter G.
1992 Settlement Culture in Nineteenth-Century [Calapooia Valley] Oregon. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. See Chapter 1 "Valley of the Long Grasses" and the Kalapuya Tribe.

Bolen, Eric G.
1998 "John Lawson's Legendary Journey: When the Young English Adventurer John Lawson Explored the Carolinas in 1701, He Found a Natural World Teeming with Wildlife and Indians. His Book Still Opens a Window on That Lost World." Wildlife in North Carolina, Vol. 62, #12 (Dec): 23-27. Notes that snow geese (he called white brant) fed heavily on the newly burned marshes and savannas (presumably by Indians) and the use of fire (torches) in canoes to see fish at night.

Bonnicksen, T.M. and E.C. Stone
1985 "Restoring Naturalness to National Parks." Environmental Management, Vol. 9: 479-486. Discusses problems with trying to return ecosystems to "natural" and/or Indian burned conditions.

Booth, Douglas E.
1994 Valuing Nature: The Decline and Preservation of Old-Growth Forests. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. See especially Chapter 3 "Aboriginal View of Nature and Old-Growth Forests."

Bork, Joyce L.
1985 "Fire History in Three Vegetation Types on the Eastern Side of the Oregon Cascades." Ph.D. dissertation. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 94 pages.

Botkin, Daniel B.
1990 Discordant Harmonies: A New Ecology for the Twenty-First Century. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
1992 "A Natural Myth." Nature Conservancy, Vol. 42, #3 (May/June): 38. Brief mention of Indian fires.

Bourdeau, Alex
1990 "The Ridge Trail: A Forest Service Maintained Resource Procurement Route on the Wind River Ranger District of the Gifford Pinchot National Forest." Paper presented at the
1990 Northwest Anthropological Conference. 11 pages. Indian use of fire mentioned for huckleberry area management - Klickitat Tribe-

Boyd, Robert T.
1986 "Strategies of Indian Burning in the Willamette Valley." Canadian Journal of Anthropology/Revue Canadienne d'Anthropologie, Vol. 5, #1 (Fall): 65-86. Kalapuya Tribe and Bands.

Boyd, Robert T. (ed.)
1999 Indians, Fire, and the Land. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press.

Bromley, Stanley W.
1935 "The Original Forest Types of Southern New England." Ecological Monographs, Vol. 5, #1 (Jan): 61-89.

Brown, Arthur A. and Kenneth P. Davis
1973 Forest Fire: Control and Use. 2nd edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Book Company. They report on page 16 "It is known that Indians at times set fires...It is at least a fair assumption that no habitual or systematic burning was carried out by the Indians." (!!!)

Brown, Dee Alexander
1971 Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Brief mention of burning by Indians.

Buckner, Ed
2000 "In Summary: Fire in the Evolution of the Eastern Landscape-A Timeline." Pp. 120 in Daniel A. Yaussy (compiler) Proceedings: Workshop on Fire, People, and the Central Hardwoods Landscape, March 12-14, 2000, Richmond, Kentucky. GTR-NE-274. Newtown Square, PA: USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station.

Bunting, Robert
1997 The Pacific Raincoast: Environment and Culture in an American Eden, 1778-1900. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. Several mentions of the Kalapuya Tribe burning in the Willamette Valley of Oregon on pages 12-15 and 80-81. Also mentions burning by settlers on pages 80-85.

Burcham, Lee T.
1974 "Fire and Chaparral Before European Settlement." Pp. 101-120 in Rosenthall and Murry (eds.) Symposium on Living with the Chaparral: Proceedings March 30-31, 1973. Riverside, CA: University of California Press.

Burke, Constance J.
1979 "Historic Fires in the Central Western Cascades, Oregon." MS thesis. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. See Chapter IV.

Burns, Robert
1973 "Cultural Change, Resource Use and the Forest Landscape: The Case of the Willamette National Forest." Ph.D. dissertation. Eugene, OR: University of Oregon, Department of Geography. Mentions Indians use of fire on pages 67-68.

Butzer, Karl W.
1990 "The Indian Legacy in the American Landscape." Pp. 27-50 in Michael P. Conzen (ed.) The Making of the American Landscape. Boston, MA: Unwin Hyman.
1992 "The Americas Before and After 1492: An Introduction to Current Geographical Research." Annals of the American Geographers, Vol. 82, #3: 345-368.

Campbell, J.N.N., D.D. Taylor, M.E. Medley, and A.C. Risk
1991 "Floristic and Historical Evidence of Fire-Maintained, Grassy Pine-Oak Barriers Before Settlement in Southeastern Kentucky." Pp. 359-375 in Stephen C. Nodvin and Thomas A. Waldrop (eds.) Fire and the Environment: Ecological and Cultural Perspectives, Proceedings of an International Symposium, Knoxville, Tennessee, March 20-24, 1990. GTR-SE-69. Asheville, NC: USDA Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. Mentions fire use by Indians on pages 369-370.

Capoeman, Pauline K. (ed.)
1990 Land of the Quinault. Introduction by Joe DeLaCruz. Taholah, WA: Quinault Indian Nation. 315 pages. American Indian perspective on the history of the Olympic Peninsula, WA.

Carrol, Charles F.
1973 The Timber Economy of Puritan New England. Providence, RI: Brown University Press. Indian use of fire mentioned on pages 34-35.

Castetter, Edward P. and Willis H. Bell
1951 Yuma Indian Agriculture: Primitive Subsistence on the Lower Colorado and Gila Rivers. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press. Notes burning of fields prior to planting by Yuman Indians, burning by Cocopa and Mohave Tribes in the tule (bullrush) areas to flush rabbits, and burning by Yumans to concentrate prey, especially rabbits, to make hunting easier.

Chadwick, Douglas H.
1993 "The American Prairie: Roots of the Sky." National Geographic, Vol. 184, #4 (Oct): 90-119. Brief mention of Indians burning the prairies on pages 113 and 116.

Chase, Alston
1995 In a Dark Wood: The Fight Over Forests and the Rising Tyranny of Ecology. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Company. 5353 pages. Citing other studies, the author writes about Indian forest fires on pages 157, 223, 300-301, and 404-405.

Clark, J.S. and P.D. Royall
1995 "Transformation of a Northern Hardwood Forest by Aboriginal (Iroquois) Fire." Holocene, Vol. 5, #1: 1-9. Mentions the Iroquois Tribe and fire use.

Clark, Robert Carlton
1927 History of the Willamette Valley, Oregon. Volume I. Chicago, IL: The S.J. Clark Publishing Company. Mentions Indian burning by the Kalapuya Tribe on pages 33, 52, and 69, and give a good description of the burned terrain along the Willamette River and the foothills.

Clark, S.A.
1905 Pioneer Days of Oregon History. Vol. I. Portland, OR: J.K. Gill Company. Mentions the Kalapuya Tribe burning on pages 89-92. States that the Kalapuya Indians set annual fall fire surrounds on the eastern side of the Willamette Valley to supply their winter meat (deer) stores.

Coman, Warren E.
1911 "Did the Indian Protect the Forest?" Pacific Monthly, Vol. 26, #3 (Sept): 300-306. Indian use of fire on pages 300-301.

Cooper, Charles F.
1960 "Changes in Vegetation, Structure, and Growth of Southwestern Pine Forests Since White Settlement." Ecological Monographs, Vol. 30, #2 (April): 129-164.

Cornutt, John M.
1971 Cow Creek Valley [OR] Memories: Riddle Pioneers Remembered in John M. Cornutt's Autobiography. Eugene, OR: Industrial Publishing Co. Mentions Umpqua Indians burning the Cow Creek Valley to keep streams open and collect tarweed seeds.

Coville, Frederick V.
1898 "Forest Growth and Sheep Grazing in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon." USDA Division of Forestry Bulletin No. 15. Washington, DC: U.S.G.P.O. Several mentions of the Indian use of fire on pages 29-31.

Covington, W. Wallace, Richard L. Everett, Robert Steele, Larry L. Irwin, Tom A. Daer; and Allan N.D. Auclair 
1994 "Historical and Anticipated Changes in Forest Ecosystems of the Inland West of the United States." Pp. 13-63 in R. Neil Sampson and David L. Adams (eds.) Assessing Forest Ecosystem Health in the Inland West. Binghamton, NY: Food Products Press. Notes Native American use of fire on pages 22-23 and 44 by citing other studies (Arno 1985, Gruell 1985, Pyne 1982, etc).

Covington, W. Wallace and M.M. Moore
1994 "Southwestern Ponderosa [Pine] Forest Structure: Changes Since Euro-American Settlement." Journal of Forestry, Vol. 92, #1 (Jan): 39-47.

Cronon, William
1983 Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists, and the Ecology of New England. New York, NY: Hill and Wang. Davies, M.A. (ed.)
1961 Peter Skeen Ogden's Snake Country Journals, 1826-1827. London, England: Hudson's Bay Record Society. See pages 7, 9, 19, 118, and 126-127 for Indian burning references.

Day, Gordon M.
1953 "The Indian as an Ecological Factor in the Northeastern Forests." Ecology, Vol. 34, #2 (April): 329-346. New England and New York areas 1580-1800.

Delcourt, Hazel R. and Paul A. Delcourt
1997 "Prehistoric Human Use of Fire on Southern Appalachian Landscapes." Conservation Biology, Vol. 11: 1010-1014.

Delcourt, Paul A. and Hazel R. Delcourt
1998 "The Influence of Prehistoric Human-set Fires of Oak-Chestnut Forests in the Southern Appalachians." Castanae, Vol. 63: 337-345.

Delcourt, Paul A.; Hazel R. Delcourt; Cecil R. Ison; William E. Sharp; and Kristen J. Gremillion
1998 "Prehistoric Human Use of Fire, the Eastern Agricultural Complex, and Appalachian Oak-Chestnut Forests: Paleoecology of Cliff Palace Pond, Kentucky." American Antiquity, Vol. 63, #2 (April): 263-278. The authors note the changes in types of pollen, charcoal, and fire scarred rocks are evidence of the Indians using fire near the Daniel Boone NF in SE Kentucky.

Denevan, William M.
1992 "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492." Annals of the American Geographers, Vol. 82, #3: 369-385. See the section on "Vegetation" pages 371-375.

Dennis, John G.
1985 "Role of Indian Burning in Wilderness Fire Planning." Pp. 296-298 in James E. Lotan, et al. (Technical coordinators) Proceedings-Symposium and Workshop on Wilderness Fire: Missoula, Montana, November 15-18, 1983. GTR-INT-182. Ogden, UT: USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.

Devens, Carol
1983 "Indian Forest Use." Pp. 308-311 in Richard C. Davis (ed.) Encyclopedia of American Forest and Conservation History. Vol. 1. New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing Company. See especially page 311 which briefly recounts Indian use of fire.

DeVivo, Michael S.
1991 "Indian Use of Fire and Land Clearance in the Southern Appalachians." Pp. 306-310 in Stephen C. Nodvin and Thomas A. Waldrop (eds.) Fire and the Environment: Ecological and Cultural Perspectives, Proceedings of an International Symposium, Knoxville, Tennessee, March 20-24, 1990. GTR-SE-69. Asheville, NC: USDA Forest Service, Southeastern Forest and Range Experiment Station. Notes burning by the Cherokee Tribe.

Dey, Daniel C. and Richard P. Guyette
1996 "Fire History Near an Historic Travel Corridor in Ontario." Forest Research Report No. 140. Sault Ste. Marie, ONT: Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Ontario Forest Research Institute. 9 pages. Mentions Indian burning by the Kipawa and Nipissing tribes on page 5. 
In Press "Anthropogenic Fire in Southern Ontario." Forestry Chronicle, Vol. __, #__: __-__.

Dieterich, John H. and Alden R. Hibbert
1990 "Fire History in a Small Ponderosa Pine Stand Surrounded by Chaparral [in Central Arizona]." Pp. 168-173 in Jay S. Krannes (technical coordinator) Effects of Fire Management of the Southwestern Natural Resources: Proceedings of the Symposium November 14-17, 1988, Tucson, AZ. GTR-RM-191. Fort Collins, CO: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. Several mentions of Indian burning.

Dixon, Roland Burrage
1905 "The Northern Maidu [Tribe]." Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, New York, Vol. 17, #3: 119-346.

Dobyns, Henry
1981 From Fire to Flood: Historic Human Destruction of Sonoran Desert Riverine Oases. Anthropology Papers No. 20. Socorro, NM: Ballena Press.

Doolittle, William E.
1992 "Agriculture in North America on the Eve of Contact: A Reassessment." Annals of the American Geographers, Vol. 82, #3: 386-401. See the section "Slash-and-Burn Shifting Cultivation?" pages 392-393.

Dorney, John R.
1981 "The Impact of Native Americans on Presettlement Vegetation in Southeastern Wisconsin." Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Vol. 69: 26-36.

Dorney, Cheryl H. and John R. Dorney
1989 "An Unusual Oak Savanna in Northeastern Wisconsin: The Effect of Indian-Caused Fire." American Midland Naturalist, Vol. 122, #1: 103-113.

Douglas, David
1905 "Sketch of a Journey to the Northwestern Parts of the Continent of North America During the Years 1824-'25-'26-'27." Oregon Historical Quarterly, Vol. 6, #1 (March): 76-97. Kalapuya Tribe set fires are mentioned on September 23-28, 1826, on pages 78-79.

Douglas, David (several books document the journey and journals of David Douglas, English naturalist and botanist, through western Oregon and eastern Oregon and Washington in 1824-1827. The Douglas-fir tree is named after him.):

Davies, John
1980 Douglas of the Forests: The North American Journals of David Douglas. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. Mentions Kalapuya Indian burning of prairies in the middle and southern Willamette Valley of Oregon. See pages 47, 94, and 96. Harvey, Athelstan George
1947 Douglas of the Fir: A Biography of David Douglas Botanist. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. See page 93 for mention of Kalapuya Indian burning of prairies, some 56 miles up the Willamette River, probably near current-day Salem, Oregon. Morwood, William
1973 Traveler in a Vanished Landscape: The Life and Times of David Douglas. New York, NY: Clarkson N. Potter, Inc., Publisher. See page 93 for Kalapuya Indian burning in the Willamette Valley of western Oregon.

Down, Robert Horace
1926 A History of the Silverton Country [Marion County, Oregon]. Portland, OR: The Berncliff Press. Brief mention of the use of surround fires in the mid-Willamette Valley prairie grass to hunt game animals - mostly deer by the Kalapuya Tribe.

Downs, James F.
1966 "The Significance of Environmental Manipulation in the Great Basin Cultural Development." Pp. 39-56 in Warren d'Azevedo (ed.) The Current Status of Anthropological Research in the Great Basin: 1964. Technical Series S-H, Social Science and Humanities Publications No. 1. Reno, NV: Desert Research Institute.

Driver, Harold E.
1937 "Culture Element Distributions: VI, Southern Sierra Nevada." University of California Anthropological Records, Vol. 1, #2: 53-154.
1938 "Culture Element Distributions: X, Northwest California." University of California Anthropological Records, Vol. 1, #6: 297-434.

Drucker, Philip
1937 "Culture Element Distributions: V, Southern California." University of California Anthropological Records, Vol. 1, #1: 1-52. Mentions that Chia was burned for plant improvement by the Mountain Cahuilla, Cupeno, and the Northern and Southern Diegueno Tribes.
1939 "The Tolowa [Tribe in NW California - Smith River Area] and Their Southwest Oregon Kin." University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology, Vol. 36: 221-300. On page 233, the author notes that the Tolowa Tribe used fire in the ecosystem.

Duke, Philip G.
1985 "The Pelican Lake Phase in the Crowsnest Pass [Rockies on the British Columbia and Alberta Border]: A Locational Analysis." Archaeology of Montana, Vol. 26, #1: 1-35. Brief mention of Indian caused prairie fires on pages 10-11.

Eastman, D.
1978 "Prescribed Burning for Wildlife Habitat Management in British Columbia." Pp. 103-111 in Dennis E. Dube (compiler) Fire Ecology in Resource Management: Workshop Proceedings, December 6-7, 1977. Information Report NOR-X-210. Edmonton, Alberta: Environment Canada, Canadian Forestry Service, Northern Forest Research Centre. See especially page 105.

Elliott, Thompson Coit (ed.)
1910 "The Peter Skene Ogden Journals." Oregon Historical Quarterly, Vol. 11, #2 (June): 201-222. Describes on page 205 Indians using fire against the Hudson's Bay Co. trapping party in north-central Oregon in 1826 - Umatilla Tribe-
1937 "From Rendezvous to the Columbia [Journals of W.H. Gray in 1836]." Oregon Historical Quarterly, Vol. 38, #3 (Sept): 355-369. Indian set fires mentioned on August 28, 1836, in the Blue Mountains of NE Oregon on page 367 - Umatilla Tribe-.

Fahnestock, George R. and James K. Agee
1983 "Biomass Consumption and Smoke Production by Prehistoric and Modern Forest Fires in Western Washington." Journal of Forestry, Vol. 81, #10 (Oct): 653-657. Mentions Indian fires set for increasing huckleberry production - Klickitat Tribe-

Farber, Alfred
1979 "Archaeological Data Recovery at Site CA-NEV-318, Nevada County California." Report on files. Nevada City, CA: USDA Forest Service, Tahoe National Forest.

Feeney, Shelly R., et al.
1998 "Influence of Thinning and Burning Restoration Treatments on Presettlement Ponderosa Pines at the Gus Pearson Natural Area." Canadian Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 28, #9 (Sept): 1295-1306.

Ferguson, T.A.
1979 "Productivity and Predictability of Resource Yield: Aboriginal Controlled Burning in the Boreal Forest." M.A. thesis. Edmonton, Alberta: University of Alberta. 145 pages.

Filloon, Ray M.
1952 "Huckleberry Pilgrimage." Pacific Discovery, May-June: 4-13. Brief mention of Indian burning to make meadows on the Gifford Pinchot NF around Mt. Adams - Klickitat Tribe-

Fish, Suzanne K.
1996 "Modeling Human [Apache] Impacts to the Borderlands [in SE Arizona] Environment from a Fire Ecology Perspective." Pp. 125-134 in Peter F. Ffolliott, et al. Effects of Fire on Madrean Province Ecosystems: A Symposium Proceedings. GTR-RM-289. Fort Collins, CO: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.

Flores, Dan
1992 "The Long Shadow of the Buffalo: Animals that for 90 Centuries had Seemed as Numerous as the Stars Disappeared from the Texas Plains by 1878." Texas Parks & Wildlife, Vol. 50, #6 (June): 7-10. Brief mention of Indian burning of prairies.
1997 "The West that Was, and the West that Can Be." High Country News, Vol. 29, #15 (August 18): 1, 6-7. Also in Robert B. Keiter (ed.) In Press. Reclaiming the Native Home of Hope: Community, Ecology, and the West. Salt Lake City, UT: University of Utah Press.

Forman, Richard T.T. and Emily W.B. Russell
1983 "Commentary: Evaluation of Historical Data to Ecology." Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America, Vol. 64, #1 (March): 5-7. Authors note that many writers rely on secondary accounts and writers tend to generalize statements rather than go into specifics such as which tribes, where events occurred, and when. They give an example of fire use by Indians.

Forney, Sandra Jo 
1993 "Heritage Resources: Tools for Ecosystem Management." Paper presented to the 26th annual Society of Historical Archaeology conference, January 9, 1993. Milwaukee, WI: USDA Forest Service, Eastern Region. Makes the case that restoration of ecosystems is not as easy as one might think, especially when considering which time frames of the past are the "ideal."

Fritz, Emanuel
1931 "The Role of Fire in the Redwood Region." Journal of Forestry, Vol. 29, #10 (Oct): 939-950. Discussion of Indian use of fire on pages 939-940.

Frost, C.C.
1998 "Presettlement Fire Frequency Regimes of the United States: A First Approximation." Pp. 70-81 in Fire in Ecosystem Management: Shifting the Paradigm from Suppression to Prescription. Proceedings of the 20th Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference, 7-10 May 1996, Boise, Idaho. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station.

Fuller, Margaret
1991 Forest Fires: An Introduction to Wildland Fire Behavior, Management, Firefighting, and Prevention. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Mentions Indian fires on pages 167 and 186-188, the "History of Fire Policy" section.

Gabriel, H.W.
1976 "Wilderness Ecology: The Danaher Creek Drainage, Bob Marshall Wilderness, Montana." Ph.D. dissertation. Missoula, MT: University of Montana.

Gaskill, Alfred
1906 "Why Prairies are Treeless." Proceedings of the Society of American Foresters, Vol. 1, #3 (April): 158-178. Notes Indian use of fire on pages 162, 165, and 172.

Gibson, James R.
1985 Farming the Frontier: The Agricultural Opening of the Oregon Country 1786-1846. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. Discussion on pages 128-129 mentions fire use in the Willamette Valley of Oregon by the Kalapuya Tribe to hunt deer by encircling (surround) fires, gathering grasshoppers, wild honey, sunflower seeds, tarweed (wild wheat), and sighting of enemies.

Gifford, Edward W.
1931 "The Kamia [Tribe] of Imperial Valley." Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 97. 94 pages. Notes burning of brush along sloughs in southern California to flush rabbits.

Goodall, George S.
1903 "The Upper Calapooia [River Valley in Western Oregon]." Oregon Historical Quarterly, Vol. 4, #1 (March): 70-77. On page 70 is a mention of the Kalapuya Tribe burning the foothills in the 1840s.

Gottesfeld, L.M.J.
1994 "Aboriginal Burning for Vegetative Management in Northwest British Columbia." Human Ecology, Vol. 22: 171-188.

Graber, David M.
1986 "The Evolution of National Park Service." Fire Management Notes, Vol. 46, #4: 19-25.

Graves, Henry S.
1920 "The Forest Service and Light-Burning Experiments." American Lumberman, Vol. 2337 (Feb. 28): 76-77. Use of early settlers to use the same light fire on the land is found to be detrimental to the trees by the Forest Service.

Greeley, William B.
1920 "Piute [Paiute] Forestry or the Fallacy of Light Burning." Timberman, Vol. 21 (March): 38-39. Same comments as above.

Gruell, George E.
1983 Fire and Vegetative Trends in the Northern Rockies: Interpretations from 1871-1982 Photographs. GTR-INT-158. Ogden, UT: USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 117 pages. Numerous mentions of Indian set fires by the Blackfeet and Bannock Tribes..
1985a "Fire on the Early Western Landscape: An Annotated Record of Wildland Fires 1776-1900." Northwest Science, Vol. 59, #2 (May): 97-107. References 145 historical accounts by 44 observers, with an extensive bibliography.
1985b "Indian Fires in the Interior West: A Widespread Influence." Pp. 68-74 in James E. Lotan, et al. (technical coordinators) Proceedings--Symposium and Workshop on Wilderness Fire: Missoula, Montana, November 15-18, 1983. GTR-INT-182. Ogden, UT: USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.

Gruell, George E., Wyman C. Schmidt, Stephen F. Arno, and William J. Reich
1982 "Seventy Years of Vegetative Change in a Managed Ponderosa Pine Forest in Western Montana - Implications for Resource Management." GTR-INT-130. Ogden, UT: USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. Mention of Indian burning on page 7.

Guyette, Richard P. and Bruce E. Cutter
1997 "Fire History, Population, and Calcium Cycling in the Current River Watershed." Pp. 354-372 in Stephen G. Pallardy, et al. (eds.) 11th Central Hardwood Forest Conference" Proceedings of a Meeting Held at The University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, March 23-26, 1977. GTR-NC-188. St. Paul, MN: USDA Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. See pages 365-366 and 369.

Guyette, Richard P. and Daniel C. Dey
1995 "A Presettlement Fire History in an Oak-Pine Forest Near Basin Lake, Algonquin Park, Ontario." Research Report No. 132. Sault Ste. Marie, ONT: Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Ontario Forest Research Institute. 7 pages. Mentions Indian burning on page 1.
2000 "Humans, Topography, and Wildland Fire: The Ingredients for Long-Term Patterns in Ecosystems." Pp. 28-35 in Daniel A. Yaussy (compiler) Proceedings: Workshop on Fire, People, and the Central Hardwoods Landscape, March 12-14, 2000, Richmond, Kentucky. GTR-NE-274. Newtown Square, PA: USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station.

Guyette, Richard P., Daniel C. Dey, and Chris McDonell
1995 "Determining Fire History from Old White Pine Stumps in an Oak-Pine Forest in Bracebridge, Ontario." Research Report No. 133. Sault Ste. Marie, ONT: Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Ontario Forest Research Institute. 9 pages. Mentions Indian burning by the Huron tribe on page 6.

Habeck, James R.
1961 "The Original Vegetation of the Mid-Willamette Valley, Oregon." Northwest Science, Vol. 35, #2 (May): 5-77. Mentions the Kalapuya Tribe burning the prairies.
1970 Fire Ecology Investigations in Glacier National Park. Missoula, MT: University of Montana, Department of Botany.
1976 "Forests, Fuels, Fire in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness, Idaho." Proceedings: Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference, October 8, 9, 10, 1974, No. 14: 305-354. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station. Mentions Indian burning in the area.

Hammett, Julia E.
1992a "The Shapes of Adaption: Historical Ecology of Anthropogenic Landscapes in the Southeastern United States." Landscape Ecology, Vol. 7, #2 (July): 121-135. See especially section 4 "Fire Ecology, Disturbances, and Anthropogenic Landscapes" pages 128-131.
1992b "Ethnohistory of Aboriginal Landscapes in the Southeastern United States." Southern Indian Studies [North Carolina Archaeological Society], Vol. 41 (Oct): 1-50. See pages 12-15 for early accounts of Indians burning the ecosystem, especially the use of circle fires and fires set to clear areas of brush and trees to enhance certain natural resources.

Hannon, Nan and Richard K. Olmo (eds.)
1990 Living with the Land: The Indians of Southwest Oregon - Proceedings of the 1989 Symposium on the Prehistory of Southwest Oregon. Medford, OR: Southern Oregon Historical Society. 153 pages. Numerous mentions of Rogue Tribe Indian use of fire. Also includes an articles by Henry T. Lewis (see reference under his name).

Hargreaves, Sheba (ed.)
1928 "The Letters of Roselle Putnam." Oregon Historical Quarterly, Vol. 29, #3 (Sept): 242-264. Mentions Indian burning by the Kalapuya Tribe (Yoncalla Band in the Umpqua Valley) in 1852 on page 262.

Harrington, John Peabody
1932 "Tobacco Among the Karuk Indians of [Northern] California." Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 94. 284 pages. Mentions fire use by the Karok Tribe.
1942 "Coos, Lower Umpqua, and Siuslaw Ethnographic Field Notes." Manuscript at the Office of Anthropology Archives, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Quoted in Stephen Dow Beckham, Rick Minor, and Kathryn Anne Toepel's Cultural Resource Overview of the Eugene BLM District, West-Central Oregon. Report No. 4 to the BLM. Eugene, OR: Heritage Research Associates.

Harrington, John Peabody (continued)
1943 "Culture Element Distributions: XIX, Central California Coast." University of California Anthropological Records, Vol. 7, #1: 1-46. Notes fire use by the Fernadeno Tribe to drive rabbits and fire used by the Emigdiano Chumash and Kitanemuck Serrano Tribes to drive antelope into enclosures.

Hart, Jeff
1976 Montana - Native Plants and Early Peoples. Bozeman, MT: Artcraft Printers for the Montana Historical Society.

Harley, F.W.
1918 Letter dated January 30, 1918, to the forest supervisor of the Klamath National Forest from district ranger F.W. Harley. Letter classified under "Klamath - Fires." Two pages. Noted Indians burning the national forest land for clearing, acorn harvesting, and basket making.

Heizer, Robert F. and Albert B. Elsasser
1980 The Natural World of the California Indians. California Natural History Guides: 46. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Authors note on page 73 that the valley and plains people gatherer tribes/bands burned. They also note that land managers have tried to recreate Indian burning in modern days.

Helfrich, Prince
1961"Coming of the Indians [in the Fall to the Cascade Range Mountains of Western Oregon]." Column in the Eugene Register-Guard dated July 14, 1961. Published in Eugene, OR. Discussion of the Warm Springs Reservation Indians burning the mountains in the fall to create easier access and to increase spring and summer forage for horses and big game.

Hendee, John C., George H. Stankey, and Robert C. Lucas
1978 Wilderness Management. USDA Forest Service Miscellaneous Publication No. 1365. Washington, DC: U.S.G.P.O. See chapter 12 "Fire in Wilderness Ecosystems."

Henson, Paul and Donald J. Usner
1993 The Natural History of Big Sur [Coastal California]. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. See pages 234-235 and 271 for mentions of the Salinas and Costanoas (or Ohlone) Tribes burning the grasslands and oak woodlands.

Higgins, Kenneth F.
1986 Interpretation and Compendium of Historical Fire Accounts in the Northern Great Plains. Resource Publication 161, Washington, DC: USDI Fish and Wildlife Service. 39 pages.

Hines, Gustavas
1881 Wildlife in Oregon. New York, NY: Hurst & Co., Publishers. Mentions of prairie and forest fires in August 1837 in the upper Willamette Valley and the mid-Umpqua Valley on pages 96 and 98, then again on September 1st while coming back on the same trail (page 118) These fires were most likely Indian set.

Hinselman, Miron L.
1973 "Fire in the Virgin Forests of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area, Minnesota." Quaternary Research, Vol. 3, #3 (Oct): 329-382.

Hough, Franklin B.
1878 Report Upon Forestry. Prepared Under the Direction of the Commissioner of Agriculture, in Pursuance of an Act of Congress Approved August 15, 1876. Washington, DC: U.S.G.P.O. Briefly notes Indian burning on p. 115 as a cause for prairies east of the Mississippi River, p. 489 for prairies in Kentucky and Tennessee, and p. 580 for Nebraska lack of forests.

Hough, Walter
1926 Fire as an Agent in Human Culture. United States National Museum Bulletin 139. Washington, DC: U.S.G.P.O. 270 pages. Covers U.S. and other countries. Pp. 58-82 concentrates on Indian use of fire for signaling, hunting, agriculture, and war. Other sections describe hearth fires, fire making, fire tools, food preparation, etc.

Houston, Douglas B.
1973 "Wildfires in Northern Yellowstone National Park." Ecology, Vol. 54, #5 (Late Summer): 1111-1117. Discussion of Indian use of fire on pages 114-115.

Howe, George E.
1974 "The Evolutionary Role of Wildfire in the Northern Rockies and Implications for Resource Managers." Proceedings: Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference, No. 14: 317-410. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station.

Hughes, J. Donald
1977 American Indian in Colorado. Boulder, CO: Pruett Publishing Co. Brief mention of Indian fires.
1983 American Indian Ecology. El Paso, TX: University of Texas at El Paso. Several mentions of Indian use of fire.

Humphrey, Robert R.
1963 "The Role of Fire in the Desert and Desert Grassland Areas of Arizona." Proceedings: Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference, March 14-15, 1963, No. 2: 44-61. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station. Notes fire use by Indians and settlers.

Hungry Wolf, Adolf and Beverly Hungry Wolf
1989 Indian Tribes of the Northern Rockies. Canada: Hignell Printing Ltd.

Hunn, Eugene S. with James Selam and Family
1990 Nch'i-Wana, "The Big River": Mid Columbia Indians and Their Land. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 378 pages. Mentions Indian use of fire in huckleberry patches on pages 130-132. Klickitat Tribe-

Hurt, R. Douglas
1987 Indian Agriculture in America: Prehistory to the Present. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.

Irving, Washington
1843 The Adventures of Captain Bonneville. New York, NY: Thomas Y. Crowell & Co. Reprinted many times. In 1832, while in the Black Hills of SD, Irving noted that "above the forks of the Platte the grass does not burn" (page 39), also in 1835 a forest and prairie fire burned in the Blue Mountains of NE Oregon for weeks (probably Nez Perce Tribe set) on pages 261-264 and 269.

Ison, Cecil R.
2000 "Fire on the Edge: Prehistoric Fire Along the Escarpment Zone of the Cumberland Plateau." Pp. 38-45 in Daniel A. Yaussy (compiler) Proceedings: Workshop on Fire, People, and the Central Hardwoods Landscape, March 12-14, 2000, Richmond, Kentucky. GTR-NE-274. Newtown Square, PA: USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station.

Jackson, A.S.
1965 "Wildfires in the Great Plains Grasslands." Proceedings: Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference, March 18-19, 1965, No. 4: 241-259. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station. Notes fire use by Indians and settlers.

Jepson, Willis Linn
1921 "The Fire-Type Forest of the Sierra Nevada." The Intercollegiate Forestry Club Annual, Vol. 1, #1: 7-10.
1923 The Trees of California. Berkeley, CA: Associated Students Store University of California. Notes Indian use of fire in the ecology of the Sierra Nevada forest types on pages 155-157 and 167.

Johannessen, Carl L., William A. Davenport, Artimus Millet, and Steven McWilliams
1971 "The Vegetation of the Willamette Valley [Oregon]." Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 61, #2 (June): 286-302. Mentions the Kalapuya Indians using fire to drive game, reduce brush, and improve seed crops.

Johnson, Edward A.
1992 Fire and Vegetation Dynamics: Studies from the North American Boreal Forest [Canada]. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Mentions Indian burning on pages 4-6 by citing Lewis and others.

Kaib, Mark, Christopher H. Baisan, Henri D. Grissino-Mayer, and Thomas W. Swetnam
1996 "Fire History in the Gallery Pine-Oak Forests and Adjacent Grasslands of the Chiricahua Mountains of [SE] Arizona." Pp. 253-264 in Peter F. Ffolliott, et al. Effects of Fire on Madrean Province Ecosystems: A Symposium Proceedings. GTR-RM-289. Fort Collins, CO: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. See page 255 for mention of Apache set fires.

Kay, Charles E.
1994a "Aboriginal Overkill: The Role of Native Americans in Structuring Western Ecosystems." Human Nature, Vol. 5, #4: 359-398. Discusses the use of fire and other methods to modify ecosystems, especially prior to the Lewis & Clark expedition from St. Louis to the Pacific Ocean 1804-1806.
1994b "Aboriginal Overkill and Native Burning: Implications for Modern Ecosystem Management." Western Journal of Applied Forestry, Vol. 10, #4 (Oct): 121-126.
1995 "Long-Term Ecosystem States and Processes in the Central Canadian Rockies: A New Perspective on Ecological Integrity.' Pp. 119-131 in Robert M. Linn (ed.) Sustainable Society and Protected Areas: Contributed Papers of the 8th Conference on Research and Resource Management in Parks and on Public Lands. Hancock, MI: The George Wright Society. See pages 120-121, 123, and 129.
1996 "Ecosystems Then and Now: A Historical-Ecological Approach to Ecosystem Management." Pp. 79-87 in Walter D. Willms and John F. Dormaar (eds.) Proceedings of the Fourth Prairie Conservation and Endangered Species Workshop, February 1995 at The University of Lethbridge and Lethbridge Community College, Lethbridge, Alberta. Edmonton, Alberta: Provincial Museum of Alberta, Curatorial Section. See page 81 for Indian burning in Banff NP's Bow Valley in the Canadian Rockies.
1997a "Aboriginal Overkill and the Biogeography of Moose in Western North America." ALCES, Vol. 33: 141-164. See page 147.
1997b "The Condition and Trend of Aspen, Populus tremuloides, in Kootenay and Yoho National Parks [Canada]: Implications of Ecological Integrity." Canadian Field-Naturalist, Vol. 111, #4: 607-616. Indian use of fire mention on page 612.
1997c "Is Aspen Doomed? When the Landscape was Torched by Native Americans and the Elk Were Heavily Hunted, Aspen Flourished. Now This Characteristic Western Species is in Decline." Journal of Forestry, Vol. 95, #5 (May): 4-11. Also a comment and response in Vol. 95, #8 (Aug): 2, 34.
2000 "Native Burning in Western North America: Implications for Hardwood Forest Management." Pp. 19-27 in Daniel A. Yaussy (compiler) Proceedings: Workshop on Fire, People, and the Central Hardwoods Landscape, March 12-14, 2000, Richmond, Kentucky. GTR-NE-274. Newtown Square, PA: USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station.

In Prep. Aboriginal Overkill: The Role of Native Americans in Structuring Western Ecosystems. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Kelley, Lawrence H.
1995 "Protoagricultural Practices Among Hunter-Gatherers: A Cross-Cultural Survey." Pp. 243-272 in T. Price and A. Gebauer (eds.) Last Hunters, First Farmers. Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research Press.

Keter, Thomas S.
1987 "Indian Burning: Managing the Environment Before 1865 Along the North Fork [Eel River Basin in NW California]." Paper presented at the Society for California Archaeology annual meeting at Fresno, CA, on April 17, 1987. Eureka, CA: USDA Forest Service, Six River National Forest.
1993 "An Interdisciplinary Approach to Historical Environmental Modeling." Paper presented at The Society for American Archaeology annual meeting at St. Louis, MO, on April 18, 1993. Eureka, CA: USDA Forest Service, Six Rivers National Forest.
1995 Environmental History and Cultural Ecology of the North Fork of the Eel River Basin, California. Report R5-EM-TP-002. Eureka, CA: USDA Forest Service, Six Rivers National Forest. 116 pages. Chapter 2 has information about Indian burning practices of the Wailaki and Lassik people in NW California, as well as early settlers/grazers in the area.

Kilgore, Bruce M.
1973 "The Ecological Role of Fire in Sierran Conifer Forests: Its Application to National Park Management." Quaternary Research, Vol. 3, #3 (Oct): 496-513. Brief mention on page 505 citing Reynolds (1959) and Driver (1937)
1985 "What is 'Natural' in Wilderness Fire Management?" Pp. 81-86 in James E. Lotan, et al. (technical coordinators) Proceedings--Symposium and Workshop on Wilderness Fire: Missoula, Montana, November 15-18, 1983. GTR-INT-182. Ogden, UT: USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.

Kilgore, Bruce M. and Dan Taylor
1979 "Fire History of a Sequoia-Mixed Conifer Forest." Ecology, Vol. 60, #1 (Feb): 129-142. Mentions that the Yokuts and Western Mono (Monache) Tribes using fires in ecosystems.

King, Duane H.
1988 "The Day Tahlequah Burned." Journal of Cherokee Studies, Vol. 13: 46-54.

Kloor, Keith
2000 "Returning America's Forests to their 'Natural' Roots." Science, Vol. 287 (Jan. 28): 573, 575. Notes that Indians burned the forests, but some researchers disagree.

Komarek Sr., Edwin V.
1965 "Fire Ecology-Grasslands and Man." Proceedings: Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference, March 18-19, 1965. Number 4: 169-220. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station.
1967 "Fire-And the Ecology of Man." Proceedings: Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference, March 6-7, 1967. Number 6: 143-170. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station.
1969 "Fire and Man in the Southwest." Pp. 3-22 in Robert F. Wagle (ed.) Proceedings of the Symposium on Fire Ecology and the Control and Use of Fire in Wild Land Management. Tucson, AZ: Journal of the Arizona Academy of Science. Especially see pages 13-15.

Krech III, Shepard
1999 The Ecological Indian: Myth and History. New York, NY: W.W. Norton. 318 pages. Includes a chapter on Indian use (and misuse) of fire.

Kruckeberg, Arthur R.
1991 The Natural History of Puget Sound Country. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 468 pages. Notes on Indian set fires on pages 393 and 396.

Kruse, William H., Gerald J. Gottfried, Duane A. Bennett, and Humberto Mata-Manqueros
1996 "The Role of Fire in Madrean Encinal Oak and Pinyon-Juniper Woodland Development [in SE Arizona]." Pp. 99-106 in Peter F. Ffolliott, et al. Effects of Fire on Madrean Province Ecosystems: A Symposium Proceedings. RM-GTR . Fort Collins, CO: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. See the "Anthropogenically-Induced Changes with Fire and Climate" section on page 102 for mentions of Apache set fires.

Ladd, Douglas
1991 "Reexamination of the Role of Fire in Missouri Oak Woodlands." Pp. 67-80 in Proceedings of the Oak Woods Management Workshop. Charleston, IL: Eastern Illinois University. Notes that Indians burned the Missouri woodlands on page 71-76. Also has great early references for Indian set fires in Missouri from original observers.

Langston, Nancy
1995 Forest Dreams, Forest Nightmares: The Paradox of Old Growth in the Inland West. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. Section on Indian uses of the Blue Mountains in NE Oregon on pages 44-46, then Indian burning on pages 46-50. Other mentions of Indian use of fire on pages 32, 42, and 259-260. Probably Umatilla Tribe.

Lebow, Clayton G., Richard J. Pettigrew, Jon M. Silvermoon, David H. Chance, Robert T. Boyd, Yvonne Hajda, and Henry B. Zenk
1990 A Cultural Resource Overview for the 1990's, BLM Prineville District, Oregon. Cultural Resource Series No. 5. Portland, OR: USDI Bureau of Land Management.

Lewis, David Rich
1994 Neither Wolf nor Dog: American Indians, Environment, and Agrarian Change. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Numerous mentions about burning by the Northern Utes in the Great Basin, Hupas of NW California, and the Tohono O'odham of SW Arizona and NW Mexico.

Lewis, Henry T.
1973 Patterns of Indian Burning in California: Ecology and Ethnohistory. Lowell John Bean (ed.). Ballena Anthropological Papers Vol. 1. Ramona, CA: Ballena Press. (Reprinted on Pp. 55-116 in Thomas C. Blackburn and Kat Anderson (eds.) Before the Wilderness: Environmental Management by Native Californians. Menlo Park, CA: Ballena Press.) Classic study.
1977 "Maskuta: The Ecology of Indian Fires in Northern Alberta." Western Canadian Journal of Anthropology, Vol. 7, #1: 15-22.
1978 "Traditional Uses of Fire in Northern Alberta." Current Anthropology, Vol. 19: 401-402. (Reprinted on Pp, 611-62 in Dennis E. Dube (compiler) Fire Ecology in Resource Management: Workshop Proceedings, December 6-7, 1977. Information Report NOR-X-210. Edmonton, Alberta: Environment Canada, Canadian Forestry Service, Northern Forest Research Centre.)
1980 "Indian Fires of Spring: Hunters and Gatherers of the Canadian Forest Shaped Their Habitat with Fire." Natural History, Vol. 89, #1 (Jan): 76-78 and 822-83.
1981 "Hunter-Gatherers and Problems for Fire History." Pp. 115-119 in Marvin A. Stokes and John H. Dieterich (technical coordinators) Proceedings of the Fire History Workshop, October 20-24, 1980, Tucson, Arizona. GTR-RM-81. Fort Collins, CO: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.
1982a "Fire Technology and Resource Management in Aboriginal North America and Australia." Pp. 45-67 in Nancy M. Williams and Eugene S. Hunn (eds.) Resource Managers: North American and Australian Hunter-Gatherers; Proceedings of AAAS Selected Symposium 67. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, Inc.
1982b A Time for Burning. Occasional Publication No. 17. Edmonton, Alberta: University of Alberta, Boreal Institute for Northern Studies. 62 pages.
1985 "Why Indians Burned: Specific Versus General Reasons." Pp. 75-80 in James E. Lotan, et al. (technical coordinators) Proceedings--Symposium and Workshop on Wilderness Fire: Missoula, Montana, November, 15-18, 1983. GTR-INT-182. Ogden, UT: USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.
1989 "Non-Agricultural Management of Plants and Animals." Pp. 54-74 in R.J. Hudson, K.R. Drew, and L.M. Baskin (eds.) Wildlife Production Systems. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
1990a "Reconstructing Patterns of Indian Burning in Southwestern Oregon." Pp. 80-84 in Nan Hannon and Richard K. Olmo (eds.) Living with the Land: The Indians of Southwest Oregon-Proceedings of the 1989 Symposium on the Prehistory of Southwest Oregon. Medford, OR: Southern Oregon Historical Society.
1990b "Traditional Ecological Knowledge [TEK] of Fire in Northern Alberta: Something Old, Something New, Something Different." Pp. 222-227 in P.A. McCormack and R.G. Ironside (eds.) Proceedings of the Fort Chipewyan and Fort Vermillion Bicentennial Conference.
1991 "A Parable of Fire: Hunter-Gatherers in Canada and Australia." Pp. 9-16 in R.E. Johannes (ed.) Traditional Ecological Knowledge [TEK]: A Collection of Essays. Gland, Switzerland: World Conservation Union (IUCN).
1993 "In Retrospect." Pp. 389-400 in Thomas C. Blackburn and Kat Anderson (eds.) Before the Wilderness: Environmental Management by Native Californians. Menlo Park, CA: Ballena Press.

Lewis, Henry T. and Kat Anderson
In Press "Omer Stewart's Legacy of Fire: Anthropological and Ecological Contexts." In Omer C. Stewart with Henry T. Lewis and Kat Anderson (eds.) Forgotten Fires: Native American Burning of Prairies, Shrublands and Forests. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.

Lewis, Henry T. and Theresa A. Ferguson
1988 "Yards, Corridors, and Mosaics: How to Burn a Boreal Forest." Human Ecology, Vol. 16, #1 (March): 57-77. Notes Indian fire use in NW California and western Washington on pages 58-63.

Lewis, Meriwether and William Clark 
Several books document the journey and journals of the expedition from St. Louis to the Pacific Ocean and back in 1804-1806. There are numerous editions of the journals of these explorers:
Bakeless, John (ed.)
1964 The Journals of Lewis and Clark. New York, NY: Mentor Books. 384 pages. Mentions burning of the prairies on page 38 (23 July 1804 near the Platte River), pages 46-47 (15-17 August 1804 along Platte River), page 54 (25 August 1804 between Vermillion & Teton Rivers), page 97 (29 October 1804 along the Missouri River), page 124 (20 March 1805 along the Yellowstone River), page 213 (25 July 1805 at Three Forks of the Missouri River), page 333 (25 June 1806 in the Bitterroot Range where a fir tree was set on fire to bring fair weather), and page 363 (18 July 1806 on the Yellowstone River).
Bergon, Frank (ed.)
1989 The Journals of Lewis and Clark. New York, NY: Viking Penguin Inc. Mentions prairie fires on pages 29, 73-74, and 430-431. 
Botkin, Daniel B.
1995 Our Natural History: The Lessons of Lewis and Clark. New York, NY: The Berkeley Publishing Group. Mentions the Mandan Tribe setting fire to the prairies on 3/6/1805 (page 110) and fires set by the Sioux in prairies and forests on 7/20/2804 and 8/15/1805 (pages 160-170). Burroughs, Raymond Darwin (ed.)
1995 The Natural History of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press. Mentions Indians setting prairie fires on page 157-158 with the dates of 5/1/1804, 10/22/1804, 11/25/1804, 3/6/1805, and 3/20/1805. 
Cutright, Paul Russell (ed.)
1969 Lewis and Clark: Pioneering Naturalists. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. Mentions the Mandan burning of the prairies on pages 115-117. 
Thwaites, Rueben Gold (ed.)
1959 Original Journals of Lewis and Clark Expedition. Five volumes. New York, NY: Antiquarian Press. Especially volumes 2 and 3 (page 286). Reprinted in 1969 by the Arno Press, Inc. of New York City.

Little, C.
1974 "Effects of Fire on Temporate Forests: Northeastern United States." Pp. 225-250 (Chapter 7) in T.T. Kozlowski and C.E. Ahlgren (eds.) Fire and Ecosystems. New York, NY: Academic Press.

Loop, Lloyd L. and George E. Gruell
1973 "The Ecological Role of Fire in the Jackson Hole Area, Northwestern Wyoming." Quaternary Research, Vol. 3, #3 (Oct): 425-443. Discussion on pages 432-433.

Lorimer, Craig C. 
1993 "Causes of the Oak Regeneration Problem." Pp. 13-39 in David Loftis and Charles E. McGee (eds.) Oak Regeneration: Serious Problems, Practical Recommendations. Symposium Proceedings, September 8-10, 1992, Knoxville, Tennessee. Presented by the Center for Oak Studies. GTR-SE-84. Asheville, NC: USDA Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. 319 pages. Refer to the "Historical Factors" section on pages 21-29 (also mentions burning by the early settlers).

Loscheider, Mavis
1975 "Indian Fire Practices of the Northern Great Plains and Adjacent Areas: An Ethnohistorical Account." Manuscript. Missoula, MT: University of Montana. 26 pages.
1977 "Use of Fire in Interethnic & Intraethnic Relation on the Northern Plain." The Western Canadian Journal of Anthropology, Vol. 7, #4: 82-96.

Lutz, Harold J.
1959 Aboriginal Man and White Men as Historical Causes of Fires in the Boreal Forest, with Particular Reference to Alaska. Yale School of Forestry Bulletin No. 65. New Haven, CT: Yale University.

Lyman, Horace Sumner
1900 "Reminiscences of F.X. Matthieu [Oregon Trail Pioneer of 1842]." Oregon Historical Quarterly, Vol. 1, #1 (March): 73-104. Discussion of Kalapuya Tribe burning practices on pages 87-88.

McClain, William E. and Sherrie L. Elzinga
1994 "The Occurrence of Prairie and Forest Fires in Illinois and Other Midwestern States, 1670 to 1854." Erigenia, Vol. 13 (June): 79-90. Notes that the Miami Tribe used fire to hunt bison and deer on pages 80-81 and other Indians on pages 82-84, also Table 1 showing the use of ring fires by several Illinois tribes.

MacCleery, Douglas W.
1992 "American Forests: A History of Resiliency and Recovery." Forest Service Publication 540. Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service in cooperation with the Forest History Society. 59 pages. A general overview from the 16th century. Reprinted in 1993 by the Forest History Society in Durham, NC.
1994 "Resiliency and Recovery: A Brief History of Conditions and Trends in U.S. Forests." Forest & Conservation History, Vol. 38, #3 (July): 135-139. Mentions on page 136 Indian use of fire. Excerpts from the above publication.

Macduff, Nelson Ferris
1920 "'Siwash Forestry' [Light Burning]." Six Twenty-Six, Vol. 14, #8 (April 20): 1. USDA Forest Service newsletter mimeographed in Portland, Oregon, by the Forest Service Regional Office.

McHugh, Tom
1972 The Time of the Buffalo. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf. Notes Indian burning on p. 20, prairie fires to produce new grass for grazing on pp. 69-70, and for buffalo hunting pp. 245-246.

McPherson, G.R.
1995 "The Role of Fire in the Desert Grasslands." Pp. 130-151 in M. McClaran and T. Van Devender (eds.) The Desert Grassland. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press.

Malouf, Carling I.
1969 "The Coniferous Forests and Their Uses in the Northern Rocky Mountains Through 9,000 Years of Prehistory." Pp. 271-290 in Richard D. Taber (ed.) Coniferous Forests of the Northern Rocky Mountains: Proceedings of the 1996 Symposium. Missoula, MT: University of Montana, Center for Natural Resources. Brief mention of fire use with lots of other uses of the forests and their products.
1974 Economy and Land Use by the Indians of Western Montana. New York, NY: Garland Publishing, Inc.

Martin, Calvin
1973 "Fire and Forest Structure in Aboriginal Eastern Forests." Indian Historian, Vol. 6 (Summer): 23-26 and Vol. 6 (Fall): 38-42, 54.

Martin, Robert E. and David B. Sapsis
1992 "Fires as Agents of Biodiversity: Pyrodiversity Promotes Biodiversity." Proceedings of the Symposium on Biodiversity of Northwestern California: Santa Rosa, California (October 28-30, 1991). Report #29. Berkeley, CA: University of California, Wildland Resources Center, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources.

Martin, W.H.
1990 "The Role and History of Fire in the Daniel Boone National Forest." Report. Winchester, KY: USDA Forest Service, Daniel Boone National Forest.

Martinez, Dennis
1998 "Wilderness With or Without You." Earth First!, Vol. 18, #5 (May-June): 1, 13. Notes that the Karuk, Shasta, and Takelma SW Oregon and NW California, as well as the Ojibway, Ottawa, and Potawatomi still use fire in the Great Lake states.

Maxwell, Hu
1910 "The Use and Abuse of Forests by the Virginia Indians." William and Mary College Quarterly, Vol. 19, #2 (Oct): 73-103. Especially see the section entitled "Indian Forest Fires" pages 86-94.

Mills, Barbara J.
1986 "Prescribed Burning and Hunter-Gatherer Subsistence Systems." Haliska'i: UNM Contributions to Anthropology, Vol. 5: 1-26.

Minore, Don, Alan W. Smart, and Michael E. Dubrasich
1979 "Huckleberry Ecology and Management Research in the Pacific Northwest." GTR-PNW-93. Portland, OR: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 50 pages.

Minto, John
1898 "A Paper on Forestry Interests." Part of the Report of the Secretary of the State Land Board of Horticulture on Forestry and Arid Lands. Salem, OR: W.H. Leeds, State Printer. He reports that Indians from the Warm Springs Reservation every fall season burned the berry patches and grasses in the dry lake beds of the Cascade Range of Oregon.
1900 "The Number and Condition of the Native Race in Oregon When First Seen by White Men. Oregon Historical Quarterly, Vol. 1, #3 (March): 296-315. Revised and reprinted on pages 41-55 in Minto's Rhymes of Early Life in Oregon and Historical and Biographical Facts (c.1912), Salem, OR: Statesman Publishing Co. Several mentions of Indian use of fire. 1908 "From Youth to Age as an American: Chapter II Learning to Live on the Land." Oregon Historical Quarterly, Vol. 9, #2 (June): 127-172 and Vol. 9, #4 (Dec): 374-387. Mention on page 152 of the Kalapuya Tribe burning to renew the camas grounds, berry patches, and grass lands, then on page 153 mention is made of the Molalla Tribe in the western Cascade Range burning to improve big game range and berry crops.

Mohr, Albert and L.L. Sample
1983 "Upper Chinookian Fire Planes: Two New North American Fire-Making Techniques." Ethnology, Vol. 22, #3 (July): 253-262.

Moir, William and Peter Mika
1972 "Prairie Vegetation of the Willamette Valley, Benton County, Oregon." Manuscript. Corvallis, OR: USDA Forestry Science Laboratory.

Moore, Conrad Taylor
1972 "Man and Fire in the Central North American Grassland 1535-1890: A Documentary Historical Geography." Ph.D. dissertation. Los Angeles, CA: University of California, Los Angeles. 155 pages.

Morgan, R. Grace
1978 An Ecological Study of the Northern Plains as Seen Through the Garratt Site. Occasional Papers in Anthropology #1. Regina, Saskatchewan: University of Regina Press.
1991 "Beaver Ecology/Beaver Mythology." Ph.D. dissertation. Edmonton, Alberta: University of Alberta.

Morino, K. A.
1996 "Reconstruction and Interpretation of Historical Patterns of Fire Occurrence in the Organ Mountains, New Mexico." MS thesis. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona. Notes the use of fire by the Apache tribe.

Morris, Sandra L.
1993 "Wildfire - A Part of Cultural Prehistory in Montana: Implications for Public Land Managers." Archaeology in Montana, Vol. 33, #1: 79-90

Morris, William G.
1934a "Forest Fires in Western Oregon and Western Washington." Oregon Historical Quarterly, Vol. 35, #4 (Dec): 313-339. Mentions Kalapuya Tribe Indian burning on pages 314, 316-323, and 338 in the Willamette Valley and the Coast Range of Oregon by citing sources listed in this compilation.
1934b "Lightning Storms and Fires on the National Forests of Oregon and Washington." Portland, OR: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. Brief mention of Indian fires.

Mosgrove, Jerry L.
1980 The Malheur National Forest: An Ethnographic History. John Day, OR: USDA Forest Service, Malheur National Forest. 253 pages. Notes Indian fire use on pages 148-150.

Munger, Thornton T.
1914 "Replacement of Yellow [Ponderosa] Pine by Lodgepole Pine on the Pumice Soils of Central Oregon." Proceedings of the Society of American Foresters, Vol. 9, #3 (July): 396-406. Notes Indian use of fire on page 405.

Munns, Edward N.
1928 "The Indians Did Use Fire!" [Forest] Service Bulletin, Vol. 12, #43 (Oct. 22): 6-7. Quotes a letter dated May 27, 1813, from Thomas Jefferson to John Adams.

Myers, R.L. and P.A. Peroni
1983 "Approaches to Determining Aboriginal Fire Use and its Impact on Vegetation." Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America, Vol. 64: 217-218.

Nelson, J.G. and R.E. England
1978 "Some Comments on the Causes and Effects of Fire in the Northern Grasslands Areas of Canada and the Nearby United States, 1750-1900." Pp. 39-47 in Connie M. Bourassa and Arthur P. Brackebusch (eds.) Proceedings of the 1977 Rangeland Management and Fire Symposium. Missoula, MT: University of Montana, School of Forestry. 95 pages.

Nisbet, Jack
1994 Sources of the River: Tracking David Thompson [Hudson's Bay Company] Across Western North America. Seattle, WA: Sasquatch Books. Mention on page 116 about his own setting of grass fires which "emulated a common native practice" in early May 1808 near Libby, Montana, and on page 224 of a "local grass fire" near The Dalles, OR, on July 31, 1811 (presumably caused by Indians).

Norton, Helen H.
1979 "The Association Between Anthropogenic Prairies and Important Food Plants in Western Washington." Northwest Anthropological Research Notes, Vol. 13, #2: 175-200.

Olmsted, Frederick E.
1911 "Fire and the Forest: The Theory of Light Burning." Sierra Club Bulletin, Vol. 8: 43-47.

Olson, Steven D.
1996 "The Historical Occurrence of Fire in the Central Hardwoods, with Emphasis on South Central Indiana." Natural Areas Journal, Vol. 16, #3 (July): 248-256.

Onken, T.L.
1984 "Prehistoric Fire Activity and Vegetation Near Flathead Lake, Montana." MS thesis. Missoula, MT: University of Montana.

Oregonian, The
1899a "On the Cascade [Range Forest] Reserve." The Oregonian, October 11. Newspaper published in Portland, Oregon. The article was taken from reports by the Salmon B. Ormsby, Superintendent of the Cascade Range Forest Reserve, which he noted that "Indians from the [Warm Springs] reservations and the half-breds...set most of the fires, by leaving their camp fires burning when moving from one place to another" [in the summer and fall of 1899].
1899b "Fires in Forest Reserve." The Oregonian, December 9. Newspaper published in Portland, Oregon. The article was taken from a report by the Salmon B. Ormsby, Superintendent of the Cascade Range Forest Reserve, which he noted that Indians set eight fires in the forest during the summer and fall of 1899 - Probably Warm Spring Reservation people, perhaps Molalla Tribe.

Parfit, Michael
1996 "The Essential Element of Fire." National Geographic, Vol. 190, #3 (Sept): 116-139. Brief mentions of Indian burning on pages 128-131.

Parsons, David J. and Jan W. van Wagtendonk
1996 "Fire Research and Management in the Sierra Nevada National Parks." Pp. 25-48 in William L. Halvorsen and Gary E. Davis (eds.) Science and Ecosystem Management in the National Parks. Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona Press. See pages 25-27, 33, and 39.

Patterson, Rich
1992 "Fire in the Oaks [Indian Creek Nature Center in Iowa]: In the Midwest, the Smokey Bear Mentality is Grudgingly Giving Way to a System of Planned Burns that has Woodland Managers all Fired Up." American Forests, Vol. 98, #11/12 (Nov/Dec): 3222-24, 58-59. Mentions Indian fires on page 32.

Patterson III, William A. and Kenneth E. Sassaman
1988 "Indian Fires in the Prehistory of New England." Pp. 107-135 in George P. Nichols (ed.) Holocene Human Ecology in Northeastern North America. New York, NY: Plenum Publishers.

Pfister, Robert D., Bernard L. Kovalchik, Stephen F. Arno, and Richard C. Presby
1977 Forest Habitat Types of Montana. GTR-INT-34. Ogden, UT: USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. See pages 14-15.

Phillips, Clinton B. 
1985 "The Relevance of Past Indian Fires to Current Fire Management Programs." Pp. 87-92 in James E. Lotan, et al. (technical coordinators) Proceedings--Symposium and Workshop on Wilderness Fire: Missoula, Montana, November 15-18, 1983. GTR-INT-182. Ogden, UT: USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.

Phillips, Paul Chrisler (ed.)
1940 W.A. Ferris: Life in the Rocky Mountains (Dairy of the Wanderings of a Trapper in the Years 1831-1832). Denver, CO: The Old West Publishing Co. 365 pages.

Phillips, William
1925 "More "Piute" Forestry." [Forest] Service Bulletin, Vol. 9, #1 (Jan. 5): 10. Quotes from the Franklin B. Hough's Report Upon Forestry (1882).

Pioneer of 1847
1911 "Indian vs. Pinchot Conservation - Pioneer of [18]'47 Upholds Aborigines' Plan of Burning Underbrush - Oregon City, OR." Letter to the editor dated January 24th. The Oregonian, January 26, page 10, column 6.

Poesch, Jessie
1961 Titian Ramsey Peale, 1799-1885, and His Journals of the Wilkes Expedition. Volume 52 of the Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society. Philadelphia, PA: The American Philosophical Society. Notes burning by Rogue River Indians of southwestern Oregon on page 192.

Pyne, Stephen J.
1981 "Fire Policy and Fire Research in the U.S. Forest Service." Journal of Forest History, Vol. 25, #2 (April): 64-77. Mentions Indian use of fire on page 66.
1982 Fire in America: A Cultural History of Wildland and Rural Fire. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. See especially Chapter 2 "The Fire from Asia" pages 66-122.
1983a "Fire and Forest Management." Pp. 169-173 in Richard C. Davis (ed.) Encyclopedia of American Forest and Conservation History. Volume 1. New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing Company. Especially see page 171 which briefly recounts Indian and early pioneer use of fire.
1983b "Indian Fires: The Fire Practices of North American Indians Transformed Large Areas from Forest to Grassland." Natural History, Vol. 92, #3 (Feb): 6, 8, 10-11.
1984 Introduction to Wildland Fire: Fire Management in the Unites States. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. See the "Indian Fire Practices" section pages 236-237 for general mentions.
1993 "Keeper of the Flame: A Survey of Anthropogenic Fire." Pp. 245-266 in Paul J. Crutzen and Johann Georg Goldammer (eds.) Fire in the Environment; the Ecological, Atmospheric, and Climatic Importance of Vegetation Fires: Report of the Dahlem Workshop, Held in Berlin, 15-20 March 1992. Environmental Sciences Research Report ES-13. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
1994 "Maintaining Focus: An Introduction to Anthropogenic Fire." Chemosphere, Vol. 29, #5: 889-911.
1995a "Vestal Fires and Virgin Lands: A Reburn." Pp. 15-21 in J.K. Brown et al. (eds.) Proceedings: Symposium on Fire in Wilderness and Park Management. GTR-INT-320. Ogden, UT: USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest Experiment Station.
1995b World Fire: The Culture of Fire on Earth. New York, NY: Henry Holt and Company. The entire book is about the use of fire by various cultures from around the world. American Indians are mentioned on pages 17, 188, 242-244, 257, 287-288, and 303-308.

Reid, D.K.
1987 "Fire and Habitat Modification: An Anthropological Inquiry Into the Use of Fire by Indigenous Peoples." MA thesis. Edmonton, Alberta: University of Alberta. 169 pages.

Reid, Kenneth C., John A. Draper, and Peter E. Wigland
1989 Prehistory and Paleoenvironments of the Silvies Plateau, Harney Basin, Southeastern Oregon. Pullman, WA: Washington State University, Center for Northwest Anthropology.

Reynolds, Richard Dwan
1959 "Effect of Natural Fires and Aboriginal Burning Upon the Forests of Central Sierra Nevada." MA thesis. Berkeley, CA: University of California. 268 pages. Notes that 35 tribes in California used fire to increase the yield of seed crops, 33 tribes used fire to drive game, and 22 tribes used fire to stimulate the growth of wild tobacco.

Riddle, George W.
1953 Early Days in Oregon: A History of the Riddle Valley. Myrtle Creek, OR: Myrtle Creek Mail for the Riddle Parent Teachers Association. Notes that the Umpqua Indians used fire extensively.

Robbins, William G. and Donald W. Wolf
1994 "Landscape and the Intermontane Northwest: An Environmental History." GTR-PNW-319. Dated February 1994. Portland, OR: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. Discussion of the Indian use of fire in eastern Washington and Oregon on pages 1-11 using various historical documents.

Rea, A.M.
1979 Once a River: Bird Life and Habitat Changes on the Middle Gila. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press. Notes that the Pima tribe used fire in ecosystems.

Rea, A.M., G.P. Nabhan, and K.L. Reichhardt
1983 "Sonoran Desert Oases: Plants, Birds, and Native People." Environment Southwest, Number 503: 5-9.

Roe, Frank Gilbert
1955 The Indian and the Horse. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. Brief mentions of Indian burning.

Rolston, H.
1990 "Biology and Philosophy in Yellowstone." Biology and Philosophy, Vol. 5: 241-258.

Romme, William H. and Don G. Despain
1989 "Historical Perspective on the Yellowstone Fires of 1988: A Reconstruction of Prehistoric Fire History Reveals that Comparable Fires Occurred in the Early 1800s." BioScience, Vol. 39, #10 (Nov): 695-699. Notes Indian burning on pages 696-697.

Roper Wickstrom, C.K.
1987 Issues Concerning Native American Use of Fire: A Literature Review. Yosemite National Park Publications in Anthropology 6. Washington, DC: USDA National Park Service. 68 pages.

Rostlund, Erhard
1957 "The Myth of a Natural Prairie Belt in Alabama: An Interpretation of Historical Records." Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 47, #4 (Dec): 392-411.

Roth, Filibert
1920 "Another Word on Light Burning [Indian-Type Fuel Reduction in Forests]." American Forestry, Vol. 26: 548.

Ruckman, Jim
1993 "Prescribed Burning - Modern Applications for a Traditional Tool." Virginia Forests, Vol. 48 (Winter): 19-21. Brief history of vegetation management by Indians, European colonists, and citizens, mostly in the 19th and early 20th centuries.

Russell, Emily W.B.
1983a "Indian-Set Fires in the Forests of the Northeastern United States." Ecology, Vol. 64, #1 (Feb): 78-88. Author found no strong evidence that Indians purposely burned large areas, but they did burn small areas near their habitation sites. Noted that the Lenna Lenape Tribe used fire.
1983b "Indian-Set Fires in Northeastern Forests." BioScience, Vol. 33, #7 (July-Aug): 462.

Russell, Howard S.
1980 Indian New England Before the Mayflower. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England.

Salomon, Julian Harris
1984 "Indians that Set the Woods on Fire." The Conservationist, Vol. 38, #5 (March/April): 35-39.

Sauer, Carl Ortwin
1950 "Grassland Climax, Fire, and Man." Journal of Range Management, Vol. 3, #1 (Jan): 16-21. Brief discussion on page 19.
1956 "The Agency of Man of Earth." Pp. 49-69 in W.L. Thomas (ed.) Man's Role in Changing the Face of the Earth. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
1971 Sixteenth-Century North America: The Land and the People as Seen by the Europeans. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
1975 "Man's Dominance by Use of Fire." Geoscience and Man, Vol. 10: 1-13.
1980 Seventeenth-Century North America. Berkeley, CA: Turtle Island Press.

Sauer, Carl Ortwin and John Leighly (ed.)
1963 Land and Life: A Selection from the Writings of Carl Ortwin Sauer. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 435 pages. Reprinted in 1983. General references about Indian burning in the Great Plains on pages 28-31, 47-48, 160, 178, 189-191, 212-213, 220, 222-224.

Sauter, John and Bruce Johnson
1974 Tillamook Indians of the Oregon Coast. Portland, OR: Binfords and Mort. 196 pages. Mentions on page 76 that the Tillamook Indians of coastal Oregon did spring burning of the Neahkanie Mountain and surrounding hills to stimulate new browse to attract deer and elk, make easier hunting and travel, and drive small game to traps.

Savage, Melissa
1991 "Structural Dynamics of a Southwestern Pine Forest Under Chronic Human Influence." Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 81, #3: 271-289.

Saveland, Jim
1995 "Fire in the Forest." Pp. 14-19 in L.G. Eskew (compiler) Forest Health Through Silviculture: Proceedings of the 1995 National Silviculture Workshop, Mescalero, New Mexico, May 8-11, 1995. RM-GTR-267. Fort Collins, CO: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.

Schaeffer, C.D.
1940 "The Subsistence Quest of the Kootenai [Tribe]." Ph.D. dissertation. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania.

Schiff, Ashley L.
1962 Fire and Water: Scientific Heresy in the Forest Service. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Mentions Indian burning the pine forests of the Southeast on pages 18-19. Also many mentions of land owners burning the same forests well into the 20th century

Schule, W.
1990 "Landscapes and Climate in Prehistory: Interactions of Wildlife, Man and Fire." Pp. 273-319 in J. Goldammer (ed.) Fire in the Tropical Biota. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag. 497 pages.

Scott, Harvey W.
1924 History of the Oregon Country. Six volumes. Cambridge, MA: The Riverside Press. Vol. II mentions Kalapuya Indian burning prior to the 1830s to increase "grazing ground" in the northern Willamette Valley near French Prairie/Champoeg on page 221, while Vol. III mentions Indian burning in the Blue Mountains of NE Oregon [Umatilla or Nez Perce] in the early 1850s on page 227.

Scott, Leslie M. (ed.)
1923 "John Work's Journey from Fort Vancouver to Umpqua River, and Return, in 1834." Oregon Historical Quarterly, Vol. 24, #3 (Sept): 238-268. Mentions on page 264 that members of the Kalapuya Tribe on July 2, 1834, were burning the dry grass prairies in the middle of the Willamette Valley near present-day Corvallis, Oregon.

Sedjo, Roger A.
1991 "Forest Resources: Resilient and Serviceable." Pp. 81-122 in Kenneth D. Frederick and Roger A. Sedjo (eds.) America's Renewable Resources: Historical Trends and Current Challenges. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future. Brief mentions on pages 82-83.

Seklecki, Mariette, Henri D. Grissino-Mayer, and Thomas W. Swetnam
1996 "Fire History and the Possible Role of Apache-Set Fires in the Chiricahua Mountains of Southeastern Arizona." Pp. 238-246 in Peter F. Ffolliott, et al. (technical coordinators) Effects of Fire on Madrean Province Ecosystems: A Symposium Proceedings. RM-GTR-289. Fort Collins, CO: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.

Shrader-Frechette, Kristin S. and Earl D. McCoy
1995 "Natural Landscapes, Natural Communities, and Natural Ecosystems." Forest and Conservation History, Vol. 39, #3 (July): 138-142. Excellent discussion of the problem of defining what is "natural" in ecosystems - fire being one of the components.

Shinn, Dean A.
1977 "Man and the Land: An Ecological History of Fire and Grazing on Eastern Oregon Rangelands." MS thesis. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. Includes a 10-page discussion of the Indian use of fire in ecosystems.
1980 "Historical Perspectives on Range Burning in the Inland Pacific Northwest." Journal of Range Management, Vol. 33, #6 (Nov): 415-423.

Shipek, Florence C.
1989 "An Example of Intensive Plant Husbandry: The Kumeyaay [Tribe] of Southern California." Pp. 159-170 in D. Harris and G. Hillman (eds.) Foraging and Farming: The Evolution of Plant Exploitation. London, England: Unwin Hyman.
1993 "Kumeyaay [Tribe] Plant Husbandry: Fire, Water and Erosion Control Systems." Pp. 379-388 in Thomas C. Blackburn and Kat Anderson (eds.) Before the Wilderness: Environmental Management by Native Californians. Menlo Park, CA: Ballena Press.

Shumate, Maynard
1950 "The Archaeology of the Vicinity of Great Falls, Montana." Anthropology and Sociology Papers No. 2, edited by Carling I. Malouf. Missoula, MT: University of Montana.

Slaughter, Charles W., Richard J. Barney, and George W. Hansen (eds.)
1971 Fire in the Northern Environment - A Symposium [at the University of Alaska in College, Alaska, on April 13-14, 1971]. Portland, OR: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. Mentions Indian use of fire in papers by Richard J. Barney (page 511-59) and Miron J. Heinselman (pages 61-72).

Smith, Craig S.
1988 "Seeds, Weeds, and Prehistoric Hunters and Gatherers." Plains Anthropologist, Vol. 33, #120 (May): 141-158.

Smith, Jane Kapler (ed.), L. Jack Lyon, Mark H. Huff, Robert G. Hooper, Edmund S. Telfer, and David Scott Schreiner
2000 Wildland Fire in Ecosystems: Effects of Fire on Fauna. GTR-RMS-42. Volume 1. Ogden, UT: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. Mention of Indians using fire on pages 2-3 and 10-11.

Smithsonian Institution - Handbook of North American Indians series:
1978a Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 8 - California. Robert F. Heizer (volume editor). Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. References to Indian burning for the Chirariko, Shasta, Achumawi, Patwin, Eastern Miwok, Northern Valley Yokuts, Costanoan, Luiseno, Serrano, and Tipai Tribes and peoples.
1978b Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 15 - Northeast. Bruce G. Trigger (volume editor). Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. References to Indian burning for the Eastern Algonquins, Virginia Algonquins, Northern Iroquois, Huron, Mahican, and Delewares Tribes and peoples.
1986 Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 11 - Great Basin. Warren L. d'Azevedo (volume editor). Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. References to Indian burning for the Ute and Kawaiisu Tribes, as well as unspecified others.
1990 Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 7- Northwest Coast. Wayne Suttles (volume editor). Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. Refers to two tribes using fire - The Athapaskans of southwest Oregon and the Tualatin Band of Kalapuya.

Snyder, James R.
1989 "Fire Regimes in Subtropical South Florida." Proceedings: Tall Timbers Forest Fire Conference, May 18-21, 1989, Number 17: 303-319. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timber Research Station.

Soeriaatmadja, Roehajat Emon
1966 "Fire History of the Ponderosa Pine Forests of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation, Oregon." Ph.D. dissertation. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 212 pages.

Sperlin, Ottis Bedney
1931 The Bradenridge Journal for the Oregon Country. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. The author noted that burning by the Kalapuya Indians was accomplished to make open prairie land, harvest seeds, improve hunting, concentrate big game in unburned areas, and promote the growth of seed bearing plants.

Stanton, William
1975 The Great United States Exploring Expedition of 1838-1842. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Notes Kalapuya Tribe burning portions of the Willamette Valley of Oregon on page 261.

Stevens, Isaac I.
1860 "Narrative and Final Report of Explorations for a Route for a Pacific Railroad, Near the Forty-Seventh and Forty-Ninth Parallels of North Latitude, from St. Paul to Puget Sound. By Isaac I Stevens, Governor of Washington Territory-1855." Reports of Explorations and Surveys to Ascertain the Most Practicable and Economical Route for a Railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean.... Book I - General Report in Vol. 12. 33rd Congress, 1st Session, House of Representative, Executive Document 56. Washington, DC: U.S.G.P.O. Several obscure mentions on pages 51, 77, 79, and 192.

Steward, Julian H.
1933 "Ethnology of the Owens Valley Paiute." University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology, Vol. 33: 223-350. Notes fire use by the Mono Lake and Ash Valley Paiutes to drive rabbits, fire used by the Ash Valley Paiutes to drive antelope, and fire used by the Owens Valley Paiutes to drive deer.
1938 Basin-Plateau Aboriginal Sociopolitical Groups. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 120. Washington, DC: U.S.G.P.O.

Stewart, Omer C.
1939 "The Northern Paiute Bands." University of California Anthropological Records, Vol. 2: 127-149.
1951 "Burning and Natural Vegetation in the United States." Geographical Review, Vol. 41, #2 (April): 317-320. Long-range effects of fires from 1528 to 1936, especially on the prairies.
1954a "The Forgotten Side of Ethnogeography." Pp. 211-248 in Robert F. Spencer (ed.) Method and Perspective in Anthropology: Papers in Honor of Wilson D. Wallis. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. Role of Indian fire on prairies and forests, and the controversies among scientists over grass and woods-burning practices of Indians and whites since the 19th century. CLASSIC STUDY.

Stewart, Omer C. (continued)
1954b "Forest Fires with a Purpose." Southwestern Lore, Vol. 20, #12 (Dec): 42-46. Concerning deliberate Indian use of fire and "controlled burning" by foresters. He notes that almost every tribe used fire to modify their environment. See next two articles.
1955a "Why Were the Prairies Treeless?" Southwestern Lore, Vol. 21, #4 (Apr): 59-64. See above and below articles.
1955b "Forest and Grass Burning in the Mountain West." Southwestern Lore, Vol. 26, #6 (June): 3-9. See the above two articles as well.
1956 "Fire as the First Great Force Employed by Man." Pp. 115-133 in William L. Thomas Jr. (ed.) Man's Role in Changing the Face of the Earth. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. 1193 pages
1963 "Barriers to Understanding the Influence of Use of Fire by Aborigines on Vegetation." Proceedings: Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference, March 14-15, 1963, Number 2: 117-126. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station.

Stewart, Omer C. with Henry T. Lewis and Kat Anderson (eds.)
In Press Forgotten Fires: Native American Burning of Prairies, Shrublands and Forests. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.

Storm, Jacqueline
1990 "The Ancient Indian Fallers." Quinault Natural Resources, Vol. 13 (Fall/Winter): 16-17.

Surdam, Elmer
1937 "Indian Affairs of the Late Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries." CCC Camp Cascadia Cannonade, November 16, 1937: 11-12, 15. Mentions burning by the Willamette Valley Kalapuya Tribe/Bands "to create grass land for the game [animals] and to keep down big forest fires."

Swetnam, Thomas W. and Christopher H. Baisan
1996 "Fire Histories of Montane Forests in the Madrean Borderlands [of SE Arizona]." Pp. 15-36 in Peter F. Ffolliott, et al. Effects of Fire on Madrean Province Ecosystems: A Symposium Proceedings. GTR-RM-289. Fort Collins, CO: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. See pages 25-28, 30, and 31-32 for mentions of Apache caused fires.

In Press "Historical Fire Regime Patterns in the Southwestern United States Since AD 1700." GTR-RM-289. Fort Collins, CO: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. Mentions of Apache caused fires.

Taylor, Dale L.
1974 "Forest Fires in Yellowstone National Park." Journal of Forest History, Vol. 18, #3 (July): 68-77. Mentions that Lehmi Reservation Indians set a fire at the park boundary in
1886. Also notes fires set by trappers and explorers.

Taylor, R.J. and T.R. Boss
1975 "Biosystematics of Quercus qarryana in Relation to its Distribution in the State of Washington." Northwest Science, Vol. 59: 49-57. Notes the importance of Indian burning to maintain oak stands.

Teensma, Peter D.A.
1987 "Fire History and Fire Regimes of the Central Western Cascades of Oregon." Ph.D. dissertation. Eugene, OR: University of Oregon.

Thilenius, John F.
1968 The Quercus qarryana [Oregon White Oak] Forests of the Willamette Valley." Ecology, Vol. 49, #6 (Autumn): 1124-1133.

Thomas, Gregory
1977 "Fire and the Fur Trade." The Beaver, Vol. 308, #2 (Autumn): 32-39.

Thomas Jr., William L. (ed.)
1956 Man's Role in Changing the Face of the Earth. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press. See the Omer C. Stewart essay on pages 115-133.

Thompson, Daniel Q. and Ralph H. Smith
1970 "The Forest Primeval in the Northeast - a Great Myth?" Proceedings: Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference, August 20-21, 1970. Number 10: 255-265. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station.

Thoms, Alston V. and Greg C. Burtchard (eds.)
1987 Prehistoric Land Use in the Northern Rocky Mountains: A Perspective from the Middle Kootenai River Valley. Project report No. 4. Pullman, WA: Center for Northwest Anthropology. Pp. 123-172.

Timbrook, Jan, John R. Johnson, and David D. Earle
1982 "Vegetation Burning by the Chumash [Tribe]." Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology, Vol. 4, #2 (Winter): 163-186. Reprinted in Thomas Blackburn and Kat Anderson (eds.) Before the Wilderness: Environmental Management by Native Americans. Menlo Park, CA: Ballena Press.

Tobie, Harvey E.
1927 "The Willamette Valley Before the Great [Settler] Immigrations." MA thesis. Eugene, OR: University of Oregon. 219 pages. Recounts reports many early explorers, fur trappers, missionaries, and settler that entered the Willamette Valley in western Oregon from the 1810s to 1850s. Mentions the Kalapuya Tribe set fires on pages 14, 17, 22, 27, 29, 60, 88, and 121.

Tolonen, Kimmo
1983 "The Post-Glacial Fire Record." Pp. 21-44 in Ross W. Wein and David A. MacLean (eds.) The Role of Fire in Northern Circumpolar Ecosystems. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. See page 39 for several citations to other studies.

Towle, Jerry C.
1974 "Woodland in the Willamette Valley: An Historical Geography." Ph.D. dissertation. Eugene, OR: University of Oregon.
1979 "Settlement and Subsistence in the Willamette Valley [of Oregon]: Some Additional Considerations." Northwest Anthropological Research Notes, Vol. 13, #1 (Summer): 12-21. Points out that vegetation of today is not the same as it was when white settlers first saw it.
1982 "Changing Geography of Willamette Valley Woodlands." Oregon Historical Quarterly, Vol. 83, #1 (Spring): 66-87.

Townsend, John Kirk
1978 Narrative Journey Across the Rocky Mountains. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. Umatilla Indians "ignited" a prairie on the opposite side of the Umatilla River in NE Oregon on page 246. Originally published in 1839.

Trudel, Pierre
1985 "Forest Fires and Excessive Hunting: The Ascription of the Native's Role in the Decline of the Northern Quebec Caribou Herds, Circa 1880-1920." Recherches Amerindiennes au Quebec (Canada), Vol. 15, #3: 21-38.

Turner, Nancy J.
1991 "Burning Mountain Sides for Better Crops: Aboriginal Landscape Burning in British Columbia." Archaeology in Montana, Vol. 32, #2: 57-73.

Turpin, Solveig A.
1984 "Smoke Signals on Seminole Canyon: A Prehistoric Communication System?" Plains Anthropologist, Vol. 29, #104 (May): 131-138.

USDI Geological Survey Reports on the Forest Reserves:

Ayres, Horace B.
1900a "The Flathead Forest Reserve." Pp. 245-316 in Twentieth Annual Report [1898-99] of the United States Geological Survey - Part V: Forest Reserves. Washington, DC: USDI Geological Survey. Notes an escaped Indian fire and fires started by miners on page 300.
1900b "Lewis and Clarke [sic] Forest Reserve." Pp. 27-80 in Twenty-First Annual Report [1899-1900] of the United States Geological Survey - Part V: Forest Reserves. Washington, DC: USDI Geological Survey. Brief mention of Indian fires on pages 48 and 72.

USDI Geological Survey Reports on the Forest Reserves (continued):

Graves, Henry Solon
1899 "Black Hills Forest Reserve." Pp. 67-164 in Nineteenth Annual Report [1897-98] of the United States Geological Survey - Part V: Forest Reserves. Washington, DC: USDI Geological Survey. Brief mention of Indian fire on page 83.

Jack, John G.
1900 "Pikes Peak, Plum Creek and South Platte [Forest] Reserves." Pp. 39-115 in Twentieth Annual Report [1898-99] of the United States Geological Survey - Part V: Forest Reserves. Washington, DC: USDI Geological Survey. Brief mention on page 69 in the Pikes Peak Forest Reserve.

Leiberg, John B.
1900a "The Bitterroot Forest Reserve." Pp. 317-410 in Twentieth Annual Report [1898-99] of the United States Geological Survey - Part V: Forest Reserves. Washington, DC: USDI Geological Survey. Notes an escaped Indian fire and fires started by miners on page 300.
1900b "Cascade Range Forest Reserve, Oregon, from Township 28 South to Township 37 South." Pp. 209-498 in Twentieth Annual Report [1898-99] of the United States Geological Survey - Part V: Forest Reserves. Washington, DC: USDI Geological Survey. Brief mention on page 278.
1902 Forest Conditions in the Northern Sierra Nevada, California. U.S.G.S. Professional Paper No. 8. Washington, DC: U.S.G.P.O. Mentions Indian burning on page 40.

Plummer, Fred G.
1900 "Mount Rainier Forest Reserve [now Mt. Rainier National Park], Washington." Pp. 81-143 in Twenty-First Annual Report [1899-1900] of the United States Geological Survey - Part V: Forest Reserves. Washington, DC: USDI Geological Survey. Mentions on page 135 that Indians were burning to promote growth of berries and to drive game animals.

Vankat, John L.
1970 "Vegetation Change in Sequoia National Park, California." Ph.D. dissertation. Davis, CA: University of California - Davis. 197 pages.

Vastokas, Joan M.
1969 "Architecture and Environment: The Importance of the Forest to the Northwest Coast Indian." Forest History, Vol. 13, #3 (Oct): 12-21.

Viereck, Leslie A.
1973 "Wildfire in the Taiga of Alaska." Quaternary Research, Vol. 3, #3 (Oct): 465-495. Brief mention on page 469 citing Lutz (1959)

Waite, Anne Sutherlin
1930 "Pioneer Life of Fendel Sutherlin." Oregon Historical Quarterly, Vol. 31, #4 (Dec): 371-381. Briefly mentions Umpqua Indian Tribe burning on page 372 near the present-day city of Sutherlin, Oregon.

Weaver, Harold
1959 "Ecological Changes in the Ponderosa Pine Forest of the War Springs Indian Reservation in Oregon." Journal of Forestry, Vol. 57, #1 (Jan): 15-20. Indirect evidence of Indian caused fires based on fire ecology studies made since 1903.
1967 "Fire as a Continuing Ecological Factor in Perpetuation of Ponderosa Pine Forests in Western United States." Advancing Frontiers of Plant Sciences, Vol. 18: 137-154. Cites Reynolds (1959) pp. 142-143.
1974 "Effects of Fire on Temporate Forests: Western United States." Pp. 279-319 (Chapter 9) in T.T. Kozlowski and C.E. Ahlgren (eds.) Fire and Ecosystems. New York, NY: Academic Press.

Wedel, Waldo R.
1957 "The Central North American Grassland: Man-Made or Natural?" Social Science Monographs, Vol. 3: 39-69. Washington, DC: Pan American Union.
1961 Prehistoric Man on the Great Plains. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. Mentions fire used as a hunting method.

Wendorf, Michael Andrew
1982 "Prehistoric Manifestations of Fire and the Fire Areas of Santa Rosa Island, California." Ph.D. dissertation. Berkeley, CA: University of California. 210 pages.

Whipple, Lt. A.W.
1941 A Pathfinder in the Southwest - The Itinerary of Lieutenant A.W. Whipple During His Explorations for a Railway Route from Fort Smith to Los Angeles in the Years 1853 & 1854. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. Notes on p. 61 "One of the party being ahead to-day looking foe water, discovered two Indians setting fire to the prairie" (August 22, 1853, near Purcell, OK).

White, Mark J.
1996 "Native American [Kootenai Tribe] Fire Use on the Kootenai National Forest." Manuscript. Libby, MT: USDA-FS, Kootenai NF, Libby Ranger District. 7 pages.

White, Richard
1975 "Indian Land Use and Environmental Change, Island County, Washington: A Case Study." Arizona and the West, Vol. 17, #4 (Winter): 327-338.
1980 Land Use, Environment, and Social Change: The Shaping of Island County, Washington. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 234 pages. Notes fire use by the Salish and Skagit Tribes on pages 20-25.

Whitney, Gordon G.
1994 From Coastal Wilderness to Fruited Plain: A History of Environmental Change in Temperate North America 1500 to the Present. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Indian use of fire documented on pages 107-120, including a table showing many Eastern and Great Plains tribes use of fire. The author summarized on Table 5.3 (pages 109-114) that fires were used to kill poisonous snakes, dislodge game, escape from enemies, amusement (like later settlers), and prevent buffalo from wandering.

Williams, Gerald W.
1997 "American Indian Use of Fire in Ecosystems: Thousands of Years of Managing Landscapes." Paper presented at the American Ecological Society annual meeting held in Albuquerque, NM, on August 12, 1997. Revised in 1998.
2000a "Introduction to Aboriginal Fire Use in North America." 2000. Fire Management Today, Vol. 60, #3 (Summer): 8-12.
2000b "Early Fire Use in Oregon." 2000. Fire Management Today, Vol. 60, #3 (Summer): 13-20.
2000c "Reintroducing Indian-Type Fire: Implications for Land Managers." 2000. Fire Management Today, Vol. 60, #3 (Summer): 40-48.
In "Aboriginal Use of Fire: Were There Any 'Natural' Plant Communities?" Pp. ___-___ in Charles Review E. Kay and Randy T. Simmons (eds.) Wilderness and Political Ecology: Aboriginal Land Management-Myths and Reality. Logan, UT: University of Utah Press.

Williams, Gerald W. and Stephen R. Mark (compilers)
1995 Establishing and Defending the Cascade Range Forest Reserve: As Found in the Letters of William G. Steel, John B. Waldo, and Others, Supplemented by Newspapers, Magazines, and Official Reports 1885-1912. Portland, OR: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region and Crater Lake, OR: USDI National Park Service, Crater Lake National Park. Includes a number of the previous citations, especially those appearing in The Oregonian newspaper in the late 1890s.

Williams, Michael
1989 Americans & Their Forests: A Historical Geography. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. See especially Chapter 1.

Wilson, Samuel M.
1992 "'That Unmanned Wild Countrey': Native Americans Both Conserved and Transformed New World Environments." Natural History, Vol. 101, #5 (May): 16-17.

Winterbotham, Jerry
1994 Umpqua [now part of Douglas County]: The Lost County of Oregon. Brownsville, OR: Creative Images Printing. Numerous quotes and references to Kalapuya Indian fires in the Willamette Valley and Umpqua Tribe in the Coast Range of Oregon from the journals of early Hudson's Bay Company trappers, missionaries, and settlers along the lower Umpqua River, Smith River, and Siuslaw River systems.

Work, John with Francis D. Haines, Jr.
1971 The Snake Country Expedition of 1830-1831: John Works Field Journal. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. Three references to Indian use of fire in Idaho on page 16 (9/14/1830), page 28 (10/5/1830), and page 74 (2/7/1831).

Wright, Henry A. and Arthur W. Bailey
1980 "Fire Ecology and Prescribed Burning in the Great Plains-A Research Review." GTR-INT-77. Ogden, UT: USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 60 pages. Several mentions of Indian use of fire.
1982 Fire Ecology: United States and Southern Canada. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. Numerous brief mentions of Indian use of fire.

Zenk, Henry B.
1976 "Contributions to Tualatin Ethnography: Subsistence and Ethnobiology." MA thesis. Portland, OR: Portland State University, Department of History.
1990 "Kalapuyans [Tribe]." Pp. 547-553 in Wayne Suttles (volume ed.) Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 7 - Northwest Coast. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. Cites Boyd (1986) for burning.

Additional resource for Indians' use of fire:
The Role of American Indians in Shaping The North American Landscape, by By Doug MacCleery, USDA Forest Service
 

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